Friday, May 11, 2012

Larisa Bercea (Romanii au talent) semifinala 5

الكاميرا الخفية - تورط الرجال


Thursday, May 10, 2012

Pases Mágicos "Serie de Westwood" ( Magical pases "Westwood series" free...

cybershamans (karmapolice) / CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

Wednesday, May 9, 2012

RealHula presents Aia La O Pele

Pikake dances the hula kahiko number "Aia La O Pele" for the goddess of the volcano, Pele. The chant is by Pattye Kealohalani Wright, known as Kumu Kea in the RealHula video teaching series. Hula kahiko refers to the old style of hula danced to chants and to percussion instruments.


reiki pentru oameni ocupati: “Ce se intampla in corp cand bem apa?”

reiki pentru oameni ocupati: “Ce se intampla in corp cand bem apa?”


Taking Care of The Southwest in 2012...Home of the Matriarch

The Southwest is the place of KUN...the matriarchal trigram that enhances the luck of relationships...bringing with it the promise of romance and love.

To the Chinese there are three major happy occasions in life...a birth, a marriage and a longevity birthday. Of these three, marriage is generally regarded as the most significant of the double happiness occasion.

So the symbol for Double Happiness shown on the right here has come to symbolize the marriage union...and placing this image in the Southwest makes it a powerful talisman to create marriage luck. I’ve seen the power of this symbol work wonders with many confirmed bachelors...especially when placed in the Southwest.

Feng shui is a manifestation of luck from the earth...and the earth element is believed to signify abundance. The Southwest is symbolic of the earth element and placing natural quartz crystals in this area would normally create harmonious energy. This year however the hostile and quarrelsome number 3 has flown into the SW, the home of the matriarch suggesting that anger and quarrelsome natures will afflict the mother energy of the home affecting the safety of marriages and the overall harmony of the home. If your bedroom is located in the SW you will be particularly influenced by the presence of this nasty 3 star.

Here’s what you can do:

  • Add extra light to the Southwest corner of your home. If you brighten up this sector it will strongly enhance the matriarchal energy while subduing this hostile star. The added light will strengthen the mother energy of the home, which benefits the mother figure of the family and naturally others in the household will also benefit.
  • Another excellent cure is the Flaming Magic Wheel with Sword - This will also suppress hostile energy brought by other people’s jealous intentions. Placing this in the SW will strengthen the chi essence of the mother figures in your home this year.
  • This star number also attracts bad luck having to do with problems arising from the law...court cases, litigation...things like this. So if your door faces SW it’s best to try using another door this year.
  • Keep this part of the home quiet
  • Remove water energy from the Southwest

Take note of the potential dangers to the mother figure and overall harmony of the family this year and use the above guidelines to protect and take care of your southwest sector.


cybershamans (karmapolice) / CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

Tuesday, May 8, 2012

Tribute of Oden / Wotan / Odin

cybershamans (karmapolice) / CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

The Money That Is Sold Abroad Is You!

It is not dollars, treasuries, bonds and debt that is being sold by your government.

It is you.

Text and references: Freedomain Radio -

cybershamans (karmapolice) / CC BY-NC-ND 3.0


Cine este agentul CIA care lucrează pentru Băsescu...

Blogul din Drumul Taberei: Cine este agentul CIA care lucrează pentru Băsescu...: Tuturor celor prezenţi şi viitori, salutare! Referitor la agentul american Harry Giknavorian, acesta are relaţii strînse cu Mafia ţigănească...

cybershamans (karmapolice) / CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

Tibetan Buddhism Mahamudra teaching-TAI SITUPA


China bans reincarnation without government permission

China bans reincarnation without government permission

cybershamans (karmapolice) / CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

Hitlers echte Stimme

Am postat aici vocea reala a lui Hitler pe care am gasit-o intimplator pe utube, pentru ca mi se pare incredibil cum si azi, dupa enshpe mii de ani toate filmarile pe care le vedem din diferite arhive il prezinta pe Hitler cu o voce pitigaiata, isterica si posedata. cINE SI DECE ESTE INTERESAT SA EDITEZE VOCEA SA si acum?

NU, evident EU nu pot fi acuzata de antisemitism avind rude moarte in lagarele de concentrare, dar asta nu inseamna ca nu trebuie sa intelegem exact ce s-a intimplat in acea perioada ca sa putem discerne adevarul de minciuna si sa stim cum sa actionam(in fond istoria se repeta).

Eu am citit Mein Kampf primul volum intr-o noapte si mi s-a parut breath taking-extrem de inteligenta, articulata, fascinanta, scrisa de un om extrem de profund si charismatic.
Apoi am trecut la volumul 2. Ce porcarie, ce dezamagire, ce carte scrisa OBVIOUSLY de altcineva.

Parerea mea despre Hitler este ca a fost o personalitate exceptionala la inceput, initiat in rituri oculte, in legatura cu civilizatii extraterestre si infraterestre, dar de cind maestrul lui spiritual a fost omorit(a fost gasit mort intr-o camera inchisa pe dinauntru) a fost posedat si s-a transformat in monstrul pe care il cunoastem toti.

Ah sa nu uitam ca a fost in mod constant drogat de cei apropiati, pus sa semnze documente despre care habar nu avea si dragutul lui prieten(singurul care a scapat de Nurnberg-i wonder why) Bohrman, a trait bine mersi muuulti ani dupa toti cei apropiati lui Hitler fusesera condamnati si omoriti.Deci Bohrman era antena de legatura.

Dar este atit de mult de spus si nu am timp si chef acum.

Pentru o mai buna intelegere a fenomenului spiritual ce s-a petrecut in acea perioada cititi 'dimineata magicienilor' si tot ce este legat de vril frauen

cybershamans (karmapolice) / CC BY-NC-ND 3.0


Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forlì (early 1463 – 28 May 1509) was an Italian noblewoman, the illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, Duke of Milan and Lucrezia Landriani, the wife of the courtier Gian Piero Landriani, a close friend of the Duke. Raised in the refined Milanese court, Caterina later held the titles of Lady of Imola and Countess of Forlì, by her marriage to Girolamo Riario. She was also the Regent for her first-born son, Ottaviano.

The descendant of a dynasty of noted condottieri, Caterina, from an early age, distinguished herself by her bold and impetuous actions taken to safeguard her possessions from possible usurpers, and to defend her dominions from attack, when they were involved in political intrigues that were a distinguishing feature of 15th century Italy.

In her private life Caterina was devoted to various activities, among which were experiments in alchemy and a love of hunting and dancing. She had a large number of children, of whom only the youngest, Captain Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, inherited the forceful, militant character of his mother.

Following Caterina's resistance to the ruthless Cesare Borgia, she had to face his fury and he took her prisoner. Upon regaining her liberty following her imprisonment in Rome, she led a quiet life in Florence. In the final years of her life, she confided to a monk: "If I were to write the story of my life, I would shock the world."


Caterina Sforza was born in Milan.

It is believed that she spent the first years of her life with the family of her natural mother. The close relationship between mother and daughter was never severed; Lucrezia was always beside her daughter in the crucial moments of her life, even in her final years in Florence.

Upon the succession of Galeazzo Maria Sforza as Duke of Milan in 1466, following the death of his father Francesco, Galeazzo arranged for his four children to be brought to court: Carlo (born in 1461), who later became Count of Magenta; Caterina (born in 1463); Alessandro (born in 1465), who later became Lord of Francavilla; and Chiara (born in 1467). By her first marriage, Chiara became Countess dal Verme di Sanguinetto and Lady of Vigevano; by her second marriage, she became Lady of Novi.[1]

All four of these children were mothered by Galeazzo's mistress Lucrezia Landriani. The children were entrusted to their paternal grandmother, Bianca Maria Visconti; subsequently, all were eventually adopted by Bona of Savoy, who became Galeazzo Maria's second wife on 9 May 1468.

At the Sforza court, frequented by writers and artists, Caterina and her siblings received a humanistic education. At that time, in the Italian courts, daughters of noble families received the same education as their brothers.

In addition to Latin and the reading of the Classics, which were imposed by the teachers, Caterina was taught, in particular by her paternal grandmother, to be proud of her warlike ancestors, to be bold in the application of arms, and astute in the skill of government.

From her adoptive mother, she received her share of the maternal warmth and affection that Bona of Savoy poured over all of the children of her husband; this continued after Caterina had left the Milanese court in the form of correspondence between the two women.

The Duke's family resided in Milan and Pavia, and often stayed at Galliate or Cusago, where Galeazzo Maria devoted himself to hunting. It was likely at one or the other of the two places that Caterina also acquired her lifelong passion for hunting.


In 1473 Caterina was betrothed to Girolamo Riario, the putative son of Paolo Riario and Bianca della Rovere, sister of Pope Sixtus IV. There were persistent rumours, however, that Girolamo was a natural son of the Pope. Caterina replaced her cousin, the eleven-year-old Costanza Fogliani, as Girolamo's bride because, according to some historians, Costanza's mother refused to allow the consummation of the marriage until Costanza reached the legal age, which was then fourteen.

Despite the bride being just ten years of age, the marriage of Caterina and Girolamo was celebrated on 17 January 1473, but consummated four years later (1477) when Caterina reached the age of fourteen.

Pope Sixtus IV gave Girolamo the Lordship of Imola, already a Sforza city, but at the time a fief of the Riario family. After a triumphal entrance into Imola in 1477, Caterina went to Rome with her husband, where he lived for many years at the service of his uncle, the Pope. The following year, in March 1478, Caterina gave birth to her first child, a daughter named Bianca after Girolamo's mother, Bianca della Rovere, and Caterina's paternal grandmother, Bianca Maria Visconti. Caterina subsequently gave birth to five more children in the next nine years.[2]

In the Vatican court

Upon her arrival in Rome in May 1477, Caterina found a city full of cultural fervour, with a desire for renovation.

Rome, at the end of the 15th century, was no longer a medieval city, but was not yet the important centre of artistic endeavours which it would become a few decades later as one of the most important cities of the Renaissance.

The atmosphere was a mix of intrigue and power, which was pursued without scruples, with the material interests far exceeding the spiritual. Caterina was banned from meddling in politics by her husband, but she quickly integrated — owing to her extroverted and sociable character — into aristocratic Roman society.

Caterina, as evidenced by correspondence from that period, immediately became admired as one of the most beautiful and elegant among the noble Roman women. She was welcomed everywhere, treated with great respect and lavishly praised by all of society including the Pope. She soon transformed from a simple adolescent into a refined and powerful intermediary between the Roman court and other Italian courts, especially Milan.

Girolamo was given a leading position in the expansion policy of Pope Sixtus IV after the premature death of the Pope's favoured nephew, Cardinal Pietro Riario. His power grew daily, and he soon displayed increasing ruthlessness towards his enemies. In 1480, the Pope, with the objective of attaining a strong domain in the land of Romagna, assigned Girolamo the lordship of Forlì, which had remained vacant after it was sequestered from the Ordelaffi family. The new Lord tried to earn the favour of the populace by erecting magnificent public buildings and churches, and by abolishing taxes.

The lives of Caterina and Girolamo changed abruptly with the death of Sixtus IV on 12 August 1484.

Occupation of Castel Sant'Angelo

When Pope Sixtus died, rebellions and disorder immediately spread through Rome, including looting of his supporters' residences. Girolamo's residence, the Orsini palace in Campo de' Fiori, was stripped of its content and almost destroyed.

In this time of anarchy, Caterina, who was in her seventh month of pregnancy, crossed the Tiber on horseback to occupy the rocca (fortress) of Castel Sant'Angelo on behalf of her husband. From this position and with the obedience of the soldiers, Caterina could monitor the Vatican and dictate the conditions for the new conclave.

Meanwhile, the disorder in the city increased. A militia accompanied the arrival of the Cardinals. The latter did not want to attend the funeral of Sixtus IV and refused to enter into conclave, for fear of coming under the fire of Caterina's artillery. The situation was difficult because only the election of a new Pope would put an end to the violence in the Eternal City.

Girolamo and his army occupied a strategic position at that point, yet could not implement an effective solution. The Sacred College asked Girolamo to leave Rome, offering in return the confirmation of his Lordship over Imola and Forlì, the military post of Captain-General of the Church, and 8,000 ducats in compensation for the damages to his property. Girolamo accepted. When Caterina was informed of the decisions taken by her husband, she increased the quota of her soldiers and made preparations for resistance in order to force the Cardinals to parley with her. The Cardinals again approached Girolamo, who took up a counterposition against his wife. On 25 October 1484, Caterina surrendered the fortress to the Sacred College and left Rome with her family. The Sacred College were then able to meet in conclave to elect the new Pope.

[edit] Forlì

In Forlì, law and order had been maintained by Caterina's uncle Ludovico il Moro Sforza, Duke of Milan. Upon their arrival, the Riarios learned of the election of Giovanni Battista Cybo, an old opponent, as the new Pope Innocent VIII. He confirmed Girolamo in his lordships of Imola and Forlì and his appointment as Captain-General. That appointment, however, was only nominal; the new Pope deprived the position of any real control over the Papal army and refused to make any payments to Girolamo for leaving Rome.

Despite the loss of income, Girolamo did not reinstate taxes on the people of Forlì.

This situation lasted until the end of 1485, when public spending became untenable and Girolamo, pressed by a member of the Council of Elders, Nicolò Pansecco, was forced to reconsider his taxation policy and was obliged to levy the taxes. This measure was deemed expensive by the population and, soon, Girolamo made enemies amongst all the citizens of Forlì.

The increase of the taxes, which affected mainly the artisan class and landowners, added to the discontent that had previously been limited to the families who had suffered under Girolamo's system of persecution against all whom he suspected of treachery. His enemies soon began to conspire against him with a view to making Franceschetto Cybo, the illegitimate son of Pope Innocent VIII, lord of Imola and Forlì in his stead. In this climate of dissatisfaction among the Forlì nobility flourished the idea of overthrowing the rule of Riario.

[edit] Girolamo's death

After more than a half dozen failed conspiracies, Girolamo was killed on 14 April 1488 by a conspiracy led by members of the Orsis, a noble family of Forlì. The palace of the lord was sacked, while Caterina and her children were made prisoners.

The important fortress of Ravaldino refused to surrender to the Orsis. Caterina offered to attempt to persuade the castellan, Tommaso Feo, to submit. The Orsis believed the good intentions of Caterina because she left her children as their hostages, but once inside she let loose a barrage of rather vulgar threats and promises of vengeance against her former captors. According to a famous legend (without historical veracity) when they threatened to kill her children still in captivity she exposed her genitals from the fortress walls and said: "Ho con me lo stampo per farne degli altri!." ("I have the instrument to bear more!") With the assistance of Ludovico il Moro, she defeated her enemies and regained possession of all her dominions; she wreaked vengeance on those who had opposed her and re-established her power over Forlì.

[edit] Lady of Imola and Forlì

On 30 April 1488 Caterina began her government as the regent of her eldest son Ottaviano, who was recognized as the new Lord of Forlì, though he was too young to rule in his own right.

Caterina's first act as Regent of Forlì was to avenge the death of her husband, according to the custom of the time. She ordered that all those involved in the Orsi conspiracy were to be imprisoned, among them the Pope's governor, Monsignor Savelli, all the pontifical generals, and the castellan of the fortress of Forlimpopoli, on account of their treachery, and also all women of the Orsis and other families who had assisted in the conspiracy. Soldiers sought out anyone who had taken part in the conspiracy. The houses owned by those imprisoned were razed to the ground, while their valuables were distributed to the poor. On 30 July 1488 came the news that Pope Innocent VIII had given to Ottaviano Riario the official investiture of his state "until his line ended." In the meantime, Forlì was visited by Cardinal Raffaele Riario, officially to protect the orphan children of his late cousin Girolamo Riario but, in agreement with the Pope, to oversee the government of Caterina.

The young Countess personally dealt with all issues concerning the government of her city-state, both public and private. To consolidate her power she exchanged gifts with the lords of neighbouring states and involved herself in the marriage negotiations of her children following the custom of the time. She also revised the tax system by reducing and eliminating some duties, and sharply controlled her realm's spending. Caterina dealt directly with the training of her militia in the use of weapons and horses. It was her intention that the lives of the people in her cities and towns be orderly and peaceful, and she expected her subjects to appreciate these efforts.

The states of Forlì and Imola was smaller than the great Italian states but, due to their geographical position, had a considerable strategic importance. On 25 July 1492, Pope Innocent VIII also died, and was replaced by Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, who took the name of Pope Alexander VI. His election seemed to strengthen Caterina's rule, as while she and her husband had lived in Rome, the Cardinal had often been a guest at their home, and in addition, he was godfather of their first son, Ottaviano, the Lord of Forlì.

Pope Innocent VIII had encouraged King Charles VIII of France to claim the Kingdom of Naples. At first Pope Alexander VI also gave his support to Charles' claim.

Ludovico il Moro added his support in 1494, and in September 1494 Charles formally claimed Naples and invaded Italy, leading to four years of war.

Caterina tried to remain neutral. She knew Forlì was exposed to invasion, located in a strategic position on the way to south to Rome. On one side, her uncle Ludovico had allied with Charles VIII. On the other side, Pope Alexander now opposed France's ambitions in Italy, and her brother-in-law, Cardinal Riario, argued in favor of the incumbent King Ferdinand II. Caterina chose to join Naples and the Pope and prepared the defence of Imola and Forlì against the French.

The French quickly defeated her Neapolitan allies, and the Countess changed sides and submitted to Charles, giving his army via libera ("free passage") to Naples. Charles conquered Naples in thirteen days. This frightened the Italian principalities, worried about their own independence, and they formed the League of Venice against Charles. The League defeated Charles at Fornovo and he retreated to France.

At this time Caterina managed to remain neutral. Not participating in the expulsion of the French, she maintained the support of her uncle Ludovico in Milan and also that of the Pope.

[edit] Second marriage

Two months after the death of Girolamo a rumor was spread that Caterina was close to marrying Antonio Maria Ordelaffi, who had started to court her. This marriage would end the claims of the Ordelaffi family on the city of Forlì. Antonio Maria, feeling confident, wrote to the Duke of Ferrara that the Countess promised to marry him. When Caterina saw how things stood, she imprisoned all those who had helped to spread the false news. These promises were also addressed before the Senate in Venice, which summoned Antonio Maria to Friuli, where he remained confined for ten years.

In point of fact, Caterina had fallen in love with Giacomo Feo, the brother of Tommasso Feo, the castellan who had remained faithful to her after the assassination of her husband. Caterina married him in 1488, but secretly, to avoid losing custody of her children and the regency of her dominions.

Giacomo was appointed castellan of the fortress of Ravaldino in place of his brother, and was awarded with an order of chivalry from Ludovico il Moro. In April 1489, Caterina gave birth to Giacomo's son, Bernardino, later called Carlo in honour of King Charles VIII, who had made Giacomo a baron of France.

All the chronicles of the period reported that Caterina was very much in love with the young Giacomo. Soon, many people began to worry that she would remove her son Ottaviano from the government and give all the important posts to her paramour. She had replaced the castellans of the fortresses of her dominions with her closest relatives: the fortress of Imola was given to Gian Piero Landriani, her stepfather, and the fortress of Forlimpopoli to Piero Landriani, her half-brother, while Tommaso Feo was married to Bianca Landriani, Caterina's half-sister.

At Tossignano, a conspiracy was formed to seize the fortress in the name of Ottaviano, and murder both Giacomo and Caterina. The Countess discovered the plot and imprisoned or executed those who were involved in the conspiracy. Immediately after this conspiracy was foiled, another plot was organized by Antonio Maria Ordelaffi, who had never become resigned to the loss of Forlí, but this also failed.

Giacomo's power increased, and with his cruelty and insolence he incurred the hatred of all, including Caterina's children. On one occasion, in full view of the public, he slapped Ottaviano (the rightful Lord of Forlì), but nobody had the courage to defend the boy. After this incident, adherents of Ottaviano decided to liberate the city from the domination of Giacomo Feo.

The nobleman Gian Antonio Ghetti and some of Caterina's own children formed a conspiracy. On the evening of 27 August 1495, Caterina, Giacomo Feo, and their entourage were returning from a hunt. Caterina, her daughter Bianca Riario and some of her ladies-in-waiting, rode in a carriage, followed on horseback by Giacomo, Ottaviano and his brother Cesare, and many staffieri and soldiers. Agents of the conspiracy attacked and mortally wounded Giacomo. The same day, Ghetti went to Caterina, thinking that she had secretly given the order to kill Giacomo. Caterina, however, was not aware of the plot, and her revenge was terrible. When her first husband was murdered, she avenged his death according to the criteria of justice of the time; now she reacted with vindictive fury. Caterina was not satisfied with mere executions: their deaths had to be among the most cruel and painful. She not only prosecuted the wives and mistresses of the conspirators, but she also sought out the children, even those in early infancy, and all were summarily tortured and executed.

The involvement of Caterina's emotions in her revenge prevented her from understanding the political reasons that had inspired the plot, whose vast proportions indicate that it was long and carefully planned. It had involved almost all the supporters of Ottaviano Riario, who were convinced that Caterina had given her tacit consent to the removal of the man who was considered the "usurper" of the state's rightful ruler. They had wanted to uphold the power of the Riario family. Caterina, as a result of the massacre which followed the assassination of Giacomo Feo, lost forever the favour and good will of her people.

[edit] Third marriage

In 1496, the ambassador of the Republic of Florence, Giovanni de' Medici il Popolano, paid a visit to Caterina. The second son of Pierfrancesco il Vecchio, he belonged to a collateral branch of the Medici family. Along with his older brother Lorenzo, he had been sent into exile because of his open hostility toward their cousin Piero, who succeeded his father Lorenzo il Magnifico in the government of Florence. In 1494, when Charles VIII invaded Italy, Piero was forced to sign an unconditional treaty which allowed the French army to move freely into the Kingdom of Naples. The people of Florence were liberated, deposed Piero and proclaimed the Republic. Giovanni and his brother were able to return to their homeland. They renounced the Medici surname and took the name of Popolano. The government appointed Giovanni as ambassador of the Florentine Republic to Forlì.

Shortly after having paid tribute to the Countess as befitted his status of ambassador, Giovanni and his entourage were housed in the apartments adjacent to Caterina's in the fortress of Ravaldino. The rumours of a possible marriage between Giovanni and Caterina, as well as a conflict which loomed on the horizon between Venice and Florence, alarmed all the lords of the League and the Duke of Milan.

Caterina couldn't hide her wedding plans and her own feelings from her uncle Ludovico; she truly fell in love with the handsome, charming, and intelligent Giovanni.[3] The situation differed from the previous one as this time Caterina had the approval of her children and finally she also obtained the consent of her uncle. The marriage of two people from such powerful families, however, was likely to arouse opposition, so they were wed in secret. The marriage took place in September 1497.

In April 1498, Caterina bore Giovanni a son, the last of her children. The child was baptised as Ludovico after his mother's uncle, the Duke of Milan, but later he became renowned under the name Giovanni dalle Bande Nere.

Meanwhile, the situation between Florence and Venice was getting worse and Caterina, who stood in the way of the passage of the two armies, prepared her defenses. She also sent a contingent of knights to the aid of Florence, led by her eldest son, Lord Ottaviano Riario, who was accompanied by men she trusted, who were trained by herself, and her husband, Giovanni.

Giovanni became seriously ill and was compelled to leave the battlefield and return to Forlì. There, despite treatment, his condition continued to deteriorate and he was transferred to Santa Maria in Bagno, where he hoped for a miraculous recovery. On 14 September 1498 Giovanni died in the presence of Caterina, who had been summoned urgently to attend him. Giovanni's death left Caterina alone to face one of the most ruthless, ambitious, and implacable families in Europe, the Borgias.

[edit] The defence against Venice

After having returned immediately to Forlì in order to make the preparations for the defence of her states, Caterina was kept occupied directing the military manoeuvres, the supply of troops, arms and horses. The training of the militias was executed by the Countess in person. To find additional money and troops, she never tired of writing to her uncle Ludovico, the Republic of Florence and the neighbouring states who were her allies. Only the Dukes of Milan and Mantua sent a small contingent of soldiers to aid her.

After a first attack by the Venetian army, which inflicted severe destruction in the occupied territories, the army of Caterina managed to outmanoeuvre the Venetians. Afterwards, the war continued with small skirmishes until the Venetians were able to circumvent Forlì to reach Florence by another route.

Because of this staunch defence, many historians of the Romagna have bestowed on Caterina Sforza the nickname of "Il Tigre" (The Tiger).

[edit] The conquest of Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois

In the meantime, Louis XII had succeeded to the French throne. Louis claimed the rights both to the Duchy of Milan as a grandson of Valentina Visconti, and to the Kingdom of Naples as heir to the House of Anjou. Before starting his campaign in Italy, Louis XII secured an alliance with Savoy, the Republic of Venice and Pope Alexander VI. In the summer of 1499 he came to Italy with his formidable army; without having to fight a single battle, he occupied Piedmont, as well as the cities of Genoa and Cremona. On 6 October, he settled in Milan, which had been abandoned the previous month by Duke Ludovico, who was a refugee in the Tyrol under the protection of his nephew-by-marriage Emperor Maximilian I.

Alexander VI had allied himself with Louis XII in return for the King's support in establishing a realm for Alexander's son Cesare Borgia, the Duke of Valentinois, in Romagna. With this aim in mind, Alexander issued a Papal Bull on 9 March 1499 to invalidate the investiture of the feudal Lords of the lands, including Caterina. When the French army left Milan with the Duke of Valentinois to begin the conquest of Romagna, Ludovico il Moro regained the Duchy with the help of the Austrians.

Caterina sought relief from Florence against the approaching French army, but Florence was threatened by the Pope. She immediately began to recruit and train many soldiers and began to store weapons, ammunition and food. She reinforced the defences of her states with important works, especially that of Ravaldino where she resided and which was already considered impenetrable. She also evacuated her children to the city of Florence.

On 24 November Cesare Borgia arrived in Imola. The city gates were opened by some of the inhabitants, and he was able to take possession, after having conquered the fortress where the castellan Dionigi Naldi of Brisighella had resisted for several days. After seeing what had happened with her more junior city, Caterina asked the people of Forlì if they also wanted to capitulate to Borgia, or if they wanted to be defended and endure the resulting siege. Because the people hesitated to answer, Caterina absolved the citizens of Forlì from their oath of fealty, and defended herself in the citadel.

On 19 December, the Duke of Valentinois also took possession of Forlì and began the siege of the fortress. Caterina repeatedly refused all offers of peace, from Cesare and from Cardinal Riario. In response, Cesare offered 10,000 ducats for her, alive or dead. Caterina tried to capture Cesare when he came near the fortress to parley.

For several days the artillery of both factions engaged in a mutual bombardment: Caterina's cannon inflicted many losses on the French army, but this damage served only to dismantle the defences of the main fortress. What was destroyed during the day was rebuilt during the night. The besieged also found time to play and dance.

Caterina's solitary resistance was admired throughout all Italy; Niccolò Machiavelli reports that many songs and epigrams were composed in her honour. Sadly, all were lost except that of Marsilio Compagnon.

As time passed without decisive results, Cesare changed his tactics. His troops bombarded the walls of the fortress continuously, day and night. After six days, they opened two breaches in the walls. On 12 January 1500, his forces stormed the fortress. The bloody battle was decisive and quick. Caterina herself fought with sword in hand until she was finally taken prisoner. Immediately she surrendered herself to Antoine Bissey (the bailli of Dijon) as a prisoner of the French, as she knew there was a law that prevented French forces from holding women as prisoners of war.

[edit] Rome

Cesare obtained custody of Caterina from the French general, Yves d'Allègre, promising that he would treat her not as a prisoner but as a guest. Caterina and her entourage were therefore forced to go with the army that was preparing to conquer Pesaro. The conquest had to be postponed because on 5 February Ludovico il Moro returned to Milan, forcing French troops to turn back. Cesare departed alone with the Papal army for Rome, where he took Caterina. In Rome, she was held in the Belvedere Palace. Towards the end of March, Caterina tried to escape; she was discovered and imprisoned in Castel Sant'Angelo.

[edit] In the prison of Castel Sant'Angelo

To justify Caterina's imprisonment, Pope Alexander VI accused her of trying to kill him in November 1499 with letters impregnated with poison, as a response to the Papal bull which had deprived the Countess of her fiefdoms.

Even today it is not known if the accusation was founded or not. Machiavelli believed that Caterina had tried to poison the Pope, while historians, such as Jacob Burckhardt and Ferdinand Gregorovius are not certain. An inconclusive and unfinished trial took place, and Caterina remained imprisoned until 30 June 1501. At that time she was released by Yves d'Allègre, who had come to Rome with the army of Louis XII for the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples.

Alexander VI alleged that Caterina signed documents renouncing all of her fiefs, because in the meantime his son Cesare, with the acquisition of Pesaro, Rimini and Faenza, was appointed Duke of Romagna.

After a brief stay in the residence of Cardinal Riario, Caterina embarked from Livorno to Florence, where her children were waiting for her.

[edit] Florence

A detail of the three graces from Botticelli's Primavera. The woman on the far right is Caterina.

In Florence, Caterina lived in the villas which had belonged to her third husband Giovanni de' Medici, often staying at the Villa Medici di Castello. Soon, she complained of being mistreated and living in a straitened financial situation.

For many years she conducted a legal battle against her brother-in-law Lorenzo de' Medici for the custody of her son Giovanni, who was entrusted to him during her detention. In 1504, her son was finally returned to her, because the judge recognized that her confinement as a prisoner of war was not comparable to the detention of a criminal.

With the death of Pope Alexander VI on 18 August 1503, Cesare Borgia lost all his power. This reopened the possibility of restoring to power all the old feudal lords of the Romagna who had been deposed. Caterina lost no time in sending letters to adherents, and pleaded her case to Pope Julius II in her own name and that of her son Ottaviano Riario. The new Pope was favourable to restoring the lordships of Imola and Forlì to the Riarios, but the populace of both cities declared that a majority of the people opposed the return of the Countess, so that the domain passed instead to Antonio Maria Ordelaffi on 22 October 1503.

After having lost her last chance to return to her former power, Caterina spent the last years of her life dedicated to her children, in particular to her youngest son Giovanni (her favourite and the most like her in personality and character), her grandchildren, her "experiments" in alchemy, and her correspondence with former friends of hers.

[edit] Death

In April 1509 Caterina was stricken by a severe case of pneumonia. She appeared to have recovered, but had a relapse of the disease, after which she made her will and arranged her burial. At the age of forty-six years, "The Tiger of Forlì", who had "frightened all of Romagna" died on 28 May 1509.

[edit] Historical legacy

In her book The Warrior Queens: Boadicea's Chariot, British historian Antonia Fraser presents Caterina Sforza as a contrasting figure to her contemporary Isabella I of Castile. Fraser points out that whilst the murders ordered by Caterina were no worse than the massacres ordered by Isabella, historians have been much harsher in their judgment of the former.

Fraser accounts for this fact by pointing out that Isabella's actions were sanctioned by the Church, as they were carried out in the name of Catholicism, whilst Caterina's were motivated by the personal, secular desire to preserve her property and rights.

Diana, Princess of Wales and her sons Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Prince Henry of Wales are descended from Caterina Sforza.

[edit] Issue

From her first marriage with Girolamo Riario, Caterina had six children:

  1. Bianca (b. Rome, March 1478 - d. after 1522), married firstly in 1494, Astorre III Manfredi, Lord of Faenza (d. 1502), and secondly in 1503, Troilo Rossi (d. 1521), the first Marchese di San Secondo. From her second marriage, she had 9 children.
  2. Ottaviano (b. Rome, 31 August 1479 - d. Bologna, 6 October 1523), Lord of Imola and Forlì (1488–99), later Bishop of Volterra and Viterbo.
  3. Cesare (b. Rome, 24 August 1480 - d. Rome, 1518 or 1540?), Archbishop of Pisa and Patriarch of Alexandria.
  4. Giovanni Livio (b. Forlì, 30 October 1484 - d. 1496).
  5. Galeazzo (b. Forlì, 4 December 1485 - d. Bologna, 1557), married in 1504, Maria Giovanna della Rovere (b. Senigallia, 1486 - d. Bologna 1538), Dowager Lady of Camerino, and eldest sister of Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Duke of Urbino. They had a daughter, Giulia, and a son, Giulio (d. 1565). Their descendants, who later received a Ducal title, became extinct in the male line with Francesco Maria Riario della Rovere in 1676.
  6. Francesco, called "Sforzino" (b. Imola, 17 August 1487 - d. after 1509), Bishop of Lucca.

From her second marriage with Giacomo Feo, Caterina had one son:

  1. Bernardino (later Carlo) (b. April 1489 - d. 1509).

From her third marriage to Giovanni de' Medici, Caterina had one son:

  1. Ludovico (b. Forlì, 6 April 1498 - d. Mantua, 30 November 1526), renamed Giovanni after the death of his father, one of the greatest condottieri of his time and a national hero as Giovanni dalle Bande Nere. He married Maria Salviati (17 July 1499- 29 December 1543), the daughter of Jacopo Salviati and Lucrezia di Lorenzo de' Medici. Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1519–1574) was their son.

In June 1537, twenty-eight years after Caterina's death, her grandson Cosimo de' Medici, the only son of her own son Giovanni, became the Duke of Florence and in 1569, the Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Through him, Caterina was the direct ancestress of the later Grand Dukes of Tuscany, the Dukes of Modena and Reggio, and the Kings of Spain and France. Other notable descendants included Marie de Medici, King Charles II of England, and Diana, Princess of Wales.

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Abraham- the Son of a Sumerian Oracle Priest

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Ten generations had past since the great deluge and the memory of the horrendous catastrophic event was fading from the collective memory of the various tribes from the House of Noah. Nahor, the eighth generation from Noah in the House of Shem, had an infant son, raised in the shadows of the mighty Sumerian prince, Nimrod.


Early Sumerian Culture

Nimrod, the Mighty Warrior

Birth of Abram

Ur of the Chaldeas

Terah, the Oracle Priest

Tower of Babel

The Return of Abram to Sumeria

Abram flees Ur Casidim (Khaldini)

Abram, the Scion of the Sumerian Head of State

The Royal Lineage of Abram


The story of Abram is retold millions of times as a favorite to children all around the world. The drama in the Torah and the Old Testament is simple.

With the addition of the Inter-testament Book of Jasher, the Ebla Tablets, and the ancient Sumerian tablets, it reveals a “Man of all Seasons” born to Terah, the High Priest of the Temple of Ur, and he becomes a contemporary and threatened rival to Nimrod the Mighty Hunter, the builder of the Tower of Babel in the Land of Sumer, who received his power and authority by the stolen garments of skins given by the Lord of hosts to Adam.

Here is the origin of ancient Sumer, where Enmeduranki, the first High Priest was devoted to the service of an extra-terrestrial dynasty of rulers, known as the Watchers in the Inter-testament Books of Enoch, Jasher and Jubilees. Here the Sumerian god, Marduk, the son of Enki, became the god of Sumer and Chaldea.

Here was the family of Enki, a brother called Enlil, who caused the Flood of Noah, and the father Anu, the Ancient and Hidden One. In this realm of the ancients, the Priesthood of Sumer was given access to the Divine Celestial Tablets of Anu.

Here, in the land of the Annukians, as described in the books by Sitchen is the origin of the Chaldean Magi and the life of the High Priest of Ur (Uratu), Terah, who introduces Abram, the son of the Oracle Sumerian Priest.

A birth party for Abram was opening high drama of the tension and conflict between this newborn and Nimrod, the ruler of Shinar (Sumer). During the party an exploding star erupted in the heavens interpreted as an omen of the demise of Nimrod by the hands of Abram.

The babe was sent into exile, and eventually to the tutelage of Noah and Shem in Ur Casidim, the land of the Khaldini, or the Ur of the Chaldeas. All the families of Shem were inhabiting the Mesopotamian valley after the flood. After the fall of the Tower of Babel, become the Chaldeans, Assyrians, Persians, Lydians and the Hebrews/Arab Semites.

At the age of fifty, Abram returned to the land of Nimrod. This was the land that Gilgamesh sought when he obtained the Lapis lazuli tablets hidden in a Copper tablet box. Here was the land where early writing came from the records found by Kainan of the Nephilim, children of the Watchers.

Once again, Abram is caught trying the overthrow the priestly hierarchy, which was his legacy to assume the role of the High Priest. He burned down the temple of his father, which his brother Nahor died in the flames.

Abram was captured and thrown into a fiery furnace by Nimrod only to emerge unhurt, but his brother Haran died in the flames. He was then given a large possession, armed guards and Eliezar his servant by Nimrod, but his days were numbered in the court of the Nimrodian empire.

Here we see the land of the ancient zodiac calendar and ancient cosmology, the corruption of the knowledge which led to the attempted assault on the Elohim, the confounding of the communication skills of the people of Shinar, the fall of the Tower of Babel by a massive earthquake and the dispersion of the inhabitants of Shinar across the globe before the tectonic plates of Pangea separated into the continents of the world as we know them today.

After the Tower of Babel collapse, Nimrod is later known in scripture as Amraphel, one of the confederations of kings who invaded and captured Lot, nephew of Abram with the five kings of the Vail of Siddim. The fate of Nimrod was truly at the hands of Abram.

Abram fled with his family, after told of an assassination plot by Nimrod, to Harran, and later become king of Damascus. Terah his father, retired and built a Temple in Harran as a replica of his former Temple to Marduk. If this all sounds like fantasy, join the Bible Searchers as they investigate the writings of the ancients as they enhance and collaborate the story of Abram in the Book of Genesis.

Early Sumerian Culture

Nimrod, son of Cush, son of Ham, the second son of Noah, has been recognized in Hebrew scripture as a ‘mighty man’. The various tribal families were spreading across the Mesopotamian delta and were ripe for a strong leader or ruler to synthesize their tribalistic spirit into a nationalistic unity.

Kish, the city of Cush, is recognized as the first city-state with Kish as its ruler. It was then, according to ancient Sumerian tablets that kingship was lowered down from heaven and that civilization was taught to mankind by the “gods”.

The waters of the Noachian flood were receding, yet great patches of marshes and lakes spread across the fertile-crescent in which the habitation of large herds of wildlife and birds dwelt.

It was a productive, fertile and verdant landscape in which the remnants of the mighty pre-diluvia Edenic Rivers, the Euphrates and the Tigris now traversed the countryside carrying the waters collected in the steppes and mountains of Armenia to the Persian gulf. This was no hint of the arid and desert conditions that would grip these areas four and one-half millenniums later.

The mighty headwaters of the River of Eden were gone, disappearing in the continental shifting, the undulation of great continental plates and the grinding, splitting, and separating of the tectonic plates of Pangea.

In a era of a prior age, the land for thousands of miles around were fed by the mega rivers fed by the erupting head waters of a giant geyser controlled by the earth-moon tidal gravitational pulls in a central highland, Eden.

The massive uplifting which occurred during the Great Flood, and the subsequent tectonic shifting of continental plates in the days of Jared, created a mountain chain in the Armenian highlands, which now become the source of the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates. These fed the former riverbeds, now carrying water in the opposite direction from their pre-diluvium course.

Samuel Kramer, in his book, History Begins at Sumer, lists the firsts in the Sumerian society. Justice demanded that the king was required to be ‘righteous’. The Law, as promulgated and instituted by the king, stated that citizen and king alike were to obey and uphold the tenets of the law.

The Law Code was in essence codes of upright behavior, similar to the Hebraic law, the Ten Commandments which stated what is right, what is wrong and thereby should not be done.

Though credited to Hammurabi, a Babylonian ruler 1000 years later, the codified law according to Hammurabi was in essence not a law of behavior but rather a listing of crimes and the punishment needed to seek justice, a Law of Codes of Retribution. These laws were arbitrary and punitive. Rather than reflect a moral society, it was a legal attempt to arrest the behavior of an amoral and degenerate society.

Judicial administration in early Sumerian culture came by Judges, Juries, witnesses and contracts. The family, as a unit of society, instituted laws of contractual marriages, rules and customs for succession, adoption, and the rights of widows.

The Law of Economic activity initiated an exchange based on contract, rules based on employment, wages and taxation. Trade laws as depicted in a custom station in Drehem, developed a hierarchy, which kept meticulous records on trade transactions and international trade relations.

Wisdom as depicted in the science and arts was the domain of Enki, the chief scientist, of the Annunnaki and his children. This was an era depicted by the ancient in whom the “gods” may not be walking with man as depicted in the pre-diluvium society, but there is direct evidence in all writings including both Sumerian and Hebrew that the ancient rulers communicated directly with their “gods”.

The Annunnaki according to Sitchen in his series of books called the Earth Chronicles, possessed a unique object called ME which was a kind of a computer or data disc which contained instructions for the sciences, arts, and handicrafts.

This object numbered more than one hundred tablets which included: writing, music, metalworking, construction, transportation, anatomy, medical treatments, flood control, and urban decay plus astronomy, mathematics and the calendar. This object was ‘lowered down from heaven’ or granted to mankind by the ‘gods’ usually through a chosen person or group such as the priesthood.

Enmeduranki was groomed to be the first priest. He was given the secrets of Anu, Enlil and Enki in the Divine Tablets upon which the engraved secrets of Heaven and Earth were imprinted. They also taught him how to make calculations with numbers and showed him now to observe oil and water (knowledge of medicine given either as an enema (oil) or oral medicine (water).

The Divine or Celestial Tablets contained information concerning the planets, solar system, and visible constellation of stars (Zodiac), and earth sciences which included geography, geology, and mathematics.

The historical picture of the post-diluvium era was enhanced with the rediscovery of one the earliest historical documents written, the Book of Jasher, translated in 1840 from Hebrew into English and printed by the J.H.Parry & Company, Salt Lake City in 1887, later reprinted in 1988 by Artisan Sales in Thousand Oaks, California.

This ancient document is mentioned twice in the writings of the Judges, Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18. It has given historical students greater insight into the era which the children of the House of Noah repopulated the post-diluvium world.

The book was initially called the ‘upright or correct record’ but since the name of the manuscript was not known, it was called the Book of Jasher. Written in ancient Hebrew, the translators admit that only seven or eight root words could be traced to Chaldean origin, negating textual critics who felt most of Hebrew documents were formulated in the era of the Babylonian captivity of the Judean people or were renditions of earlier Sumerian texts.

Nimrod, the Mighty Warrior

The life of Nimrod has been amplified significantly by the writings of Jasher which inform us that the strength and valor of the mighty warrior was attributed to the possession of one of the sacred relics of the House of Noah, the “garments of skins which God had made for Adam and his wife, when they went out of the garden.” (Book of Jasher, translated, Artisan Sales, PO Box 1497,Thousand Oaks, CA., 91360, 1988, p. 15)

This sacred relic had been entrusted to the care by Enoch, then to Methuselah, and then Noah. In the possession of the Noah, the garments now over 1650 years old, were stolen by Ham, and given in secret to his eldest son, Cush.

When Nimrod was twenty years old, he was given these garments by Cush at the age of twenty, it states, “God gave him (Nimrod) might and strength, and he was a mighty hunter in the earth, yea, he was a mighty hunter in the field, and he hunted the animals and he built altars, and he offered upon them the animals before the Lord” (Book of Jasher, ibid. p. 15)

With this apparent divine power, this tribal family with Nimrod as their leader sought to increase their power and influence over his brethren and cousins, first subduing the House of Japheth,

With four hundred and sixty men of war including hired mercenaries, he conquered and consolidated the first historical civilization in the post-diluvium era. Shinar was the first of the royal cities who were extensively built and became the visible symbol of the unchallenged reign of Nimrod.

His fame spread throughout the land, the symbol kingship was placed upon his head and the era of the god-kings was begun. Rather than give credit to the Source of his power, he consolidated the power and glory unto himself,

“and all nations and tongues heard of his fame, and they fathered themselves to him, and they bowed down to the earth, and they brought him offerings, and he became their lord and king, and they all dwelt with him in the city of Shinar, and Nimrod reigned in the earth over all the sons of Noah, and they were all under his power and counsel. And all the earth was of one tongue and words of union, but Nimrod did not go in the ways of the Lord, and he was more wicked than all the men that were before him, form the days of the flood until those days.” (Book of Jasher, ibid, p. 16.)

The first world government was formed and the seeds of world religious and political dominance were instilled in the power of the priestly hierarchy, and the roots of the Chaldi, the secret wise ones were installed.

The empire of Nimrod was centralized in the Mesopotamian valley. “His kingdom in the beginning consisted of Kish, Babel, Erech, and Accad, all of them in the land of Shinar. From that land he migrated to Asshur and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, Calab, and Resen, a great city between Nineveh and Caleh.” (Genesis 10:10-11)

The walls of Erech (Uruk) were built on the foundation of a pre-Flood city.

Gilgamesh claimed, from his reading of tablets engraved on Lapis lazuli and secreted in a “copper tablet box” loosened with “the ring-bolt made of bronze” that this city was built by the seven sages or patriarchs of the Cainite prediluviun society and was not the city of his possessions. (Gardner, John and John Maier, Gilgamesh, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. New York, 1984 Tablet I, Lines 4-6, 22-25)

Birth of Abram

In the height of the military prowess of the Nimrodian dynasty, the prince of the military hosts was led by the capable leadership of the Terah, the high priest of Ur, the royal heir to the House of Shem, and later high priest of Harran. and a leader which the “king and the princes loved him, and they elevated him very high… and dignified him above all his princes that were with him. (Book of Jasher 7:49,51. ibid, p. 16)

At the pinnacle of greatness, second in command of the empire of Sumer, Terah was wed to Amthelo, the daughter of Cornebo. To this union was born a son, Abram. In celebration of his birth, a great party was thrown and the guest lists included heads of state(wise men) and conjurors.

The evening of the party, they witnessed an exploding star which came from the east which caused a vast luminescence and rapidly spread and covered the whole night time sky on the Mesopotamian delta.

This spectacular celestial scene prompted the wise men, the Magi, to give their oracular interpretation to Nimrod that Terah's son, Abram would become powerful and kill all the kings of the earth, an international dynastic coup.

Nimrod, the king of Kish, offered Terah a bribe to purchase Abram, which included a gold and silver enough to fill Terah’s house, with the knowledge that Abram would be killed.

A three day waiting period was given for consultation, and during that time, a son of Terah’s servant was substituted for Abram. The king immediately threw the child down and dashed the head against a stone, secure in his mind that a future political coup had been prevented.

Abram was secreted out of the city to a rural cave hideout with his mother and nurse and there lived 10 years in exile and isolation. At the onset of puberty, Abram left his family and traveled north near the site of the Great Ship south of the Ararat Mountains, where Noah and Shem apparently were living in the same area.

There he " learned the instruction of the Lord and his ways, …and Abram served Noah and Shem his son for a long time,” (Book of Jasher 9:5, ibid, p. 19.) isolated from the cosmopolitan center of higher learning of Shinar.

Within the foothills of the Armenian mountains, visible in the distance the peaks of Ararat, and within the political influence of the tribal mountain people, the Khaldini of Urartu, Abram received the instruction and wisdom of Yahweh Elohim. This Wisdom passed from Adam to Methuselah, directly to Noah and then to Abram. The oral traditions and the tablets of the Book of Adam were studied and learned by the young man, Abram.

Ur of the Chaldeans (Khaldinis)

David Fasold, his book, The Ark of Noah, while detailing the archeological finds of a ship remains in Armenia and describing the path of the drogue stones, or stone anchors depicting the path of this ancient ship, gives his thoughts on the Armenian connection of Abram.

The area of Armenia lies north of the Mesopotamian valley in the area of Lake Van. An ancient historian of the Armenian, Moses Khorenatsi, called by some the “Herodotus of the Armenians” noted that the local tribesmen called themselves Hai, pronounced by the people in the Lake Van region as Kh(o)ai, meaning Ram.

They recognized themselves as the People of the Ram and their supreme deity was (K)Hal-di. Thus was derived the land of the original Khaldini, later corrupted by Greeks in the times of Achaemenian to Chaldea. (Fasold, David, The Ark of Noah, Wynwood Press, New York, NY, 1988. p 184)

According to Josephus, Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons who colonized the land from the Euphrates delta valley to the Indian Ocean. The Persians were in descent from Elam, and the Elamites.

The Assyrians came from Asshur who dwelled in Nineveh. Arphaxad descendants were called the Arphaxadites, now known as the Chaldeans. The Syrians came from the Aramites, or the son Aram and the Lydians were in descent from the son, Laud, and his descendants, the Laudites. (Josephus, Flavius, The Complete Works of Josephus, translated William Whiston A.M., Kregel Publication, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 49501, 1981, p. 33)

David Fasold, believes that the thirteen B.C.E. Urartu was in reality the area of the Khaldini and consistent with the claims of descent from Arphaxad, born twelve years after the flood from an offshoot of Kesed, reputed son of Nahor (Fasold, Ibid. p. 185) In the Book of Jubilees, it confirms this idea with a long genealogy

Terah as noted earlier resided in Harran, and was the oracle high priest of the temple of Harran, copied after the divine city of Nippur. Tell Harran, recognized as a typical tell in the Mesopotamian valley, located eighteen kilometers from the modern Syrian border therefore became the focal center of the Abram story, the area of his roots, in the land of the People of the Ram from the House of Terah.

In Daniels time, the Chaldeans spoke Syriack (Daniel 2:4 KJV), now known as Armenian, or the language of ancient Syrian. In the Jewish Kabballah, when the divine visitors announced to Abram that Sarai, his wife was in child, he laughed and said, “No! Not Sarah! As a child, my Lord, I spent much time jesting with the young men of the mountains of Urartu.

Yes, I played satire with the men of Ur…” (Fasold, Ibid, p. 186) In Ezekiel’s day, (Ezekiel 1:3 KJV, Greek spelling) the land of the Chaldeans was by the river Kebar, or in Ur Kasdim by the modern Khabor River in upper mesopotamian valley.

Therefore Ur of the Chaldeas was the area above the bifurcation of the Euphrates River in the area of Padan Aram, near the Khabor River and the Syrian border in the town of Harran, now known as Tell Harran.

The people are known today as Armenians, who spoke the ancient language of Syriack in the land near the mountains of Urartu. The linkage of Abram to Ur of Sumeria and Ur in Chaldea which has puzzled historians and archeologists for years, may reside in the fact that Abram probably lived and received social notoriety in both the rural and cosmopolitan region.

Terah, the Oracle Priest

Terah was a worshipper of Marduk, the celestial warrior god, Mars. The Tower of Babel was dedicated to this orbiting celestial proto planet, which returned to an avenging destructive path to earth about every 52-54 years.

Imagine the fear, respect and terror created by this protoplanet as every two years it made a commentary pass by over the earth. Each pass by was closer and closer until its nearest and most destructive orbital visit came on a fifty plus year anniversary.

An entire governmental department of that early Shinar was devoted to scientific evaluation of this cometary visitor. This department included the conjurors, which developed a whole system of predictive celestial sciences and the Magi, wise men, who studied the philosophical, religious, and sociological implication of these semi-centennial visits.

Rituals and religious symbolism was developed to appease Marduk (Mars) and what better than to fashion images in stone or wood and use them in effigies to be placed in their homes for worship. This is the earliest historical depiction of idol worship (Jasher 9:7)

In his urban estate, Terah built twelve large statues, which resided in his private temple, constructed of stone and wood and no doubt reflected the highest quality of artistry and craftsmanship in the Shinar peninsula.

Each effigy represented a deity for the month, representing the calenderic system utilized in Nippur, developed since the Noachian flood and the catastrophe which forced the earth to a new and further orbit from the sun increasing the yearly calendar from 290 to 300 days per year to 360 days per year. The Zodiac system was begun, and Terah came from a long line of Oracle priests and the first disciples of the Zodiacian secret mysteries.

In the Book of Jasher, it recounts the story of Arphaxad, who had a son by Rasuja, named Kainan, not to be confused with Kainan, the son of Ham and father of the Canaanites.

This Kainan came under the special tutelage of his father and learned the art of writing. One day on the foothills, he uncovered a stone stele with writings which he soon identified as the writings of the Watchers, the fallen angels, who wrecked such genetic havoc in the antediluvian world.

These writings included the “astrology of the sun and the moon and the stars and in all the signs of heaven” (Jubilee 8:3, compare with Book of Enoch 8:1) Kainan hid the writings from the knowledge of Noah but passed the secret mysteries to his son, Kesed and then to his son, Ur, the builder of the city of Era of the Chaldeas.

It was Ur, who transported this information to the new mystery religion of the Chaldeas and was the first to sculpt molten images for worship. The formation of idol worship was started by Ur, the father of the Chaldeas.

The author of the Book of Jubilee, viewed behind the super-dimensional aspects of the story, stating, “And the prince Mastema gave his power to make all this, and through the angels who had been given under his hand, he sent out his hand to do all wickedness and sin and all transgression, and to destroy and to murder and to shed blood over the earth.” (Jubilee 11:5)

The priestly dynasty passed down through the daughter of Ur, called On, who was the mother of Nahor, the grandfather of Abram. The traditions were then passed on to Terah and Abram.

While Abram was secreted away from the deadly grasp of Nimrod, he learned the art of writing and the mysteries and secrets of the heavens from his father. The oracular mysteries were confined within the dynasty of his family. The power and social acclaim were his birthright.

Even so, Abram went to live with Noah and Shem who resided in the foothills of the Armenian mountains and resided there for thirty nine years. It was stated that “Abram knew the Lord from three years old” (Jasher 9:6)

In his youth he also pondered the meaning of worship the sun and the moon but came to the thoughtful conclusion that the Creator God was greater than these. In the solitude of the Armenian hillside, the true worship of the Creator God and the family traditions in the family of Adam, preserved and transcribed by Noah were given to Abram.

At the age of fourteen, a plague of ravens settled in the hillside and began to eat the grain as it was being sown and cast across the fields in the springtime. As soon as they cast the grain, the bird would eat it up and the villagers knew that a disaster harvest was ahead. Wherever Abram went, he had the magic to dispel the ravens, which flew in great clouds.

By diligently working with his countrymen, he saved the harvest and his fame went throughout the land. That winter, Abram, designed a novel invention to be placed on the crook-timber of the plows whereby they would drop seed into furrows and the ravens could not find the seed to eat. Thus at the age of fifteen, Abram became the inventor of the seed furrow planter.

During this era the massive building project of the empire was the Tower of Babel. In the plains of Shinar, the inhabitants of early Sumer now numbering about six hundred thousands citizens (Jasher 9:23) began the first national work building program using mortar and brick.

The megalithic (giant stones) era of the antediluvian era was over. The land of Sumer did not have limestone as quarried in Egypt and so brick, bitumen used, as mortar became the commercial building material.

Their ruler, Nimrod, who gained power and prominence using the hand wrought garments made by Yahweh Elohim, now began to believe the power and glory of his reign and thought to assume the role of a national god, an imperial monarch. It was the national custom to create your god, the first ‘me’ generation.

“And the inhabitants of the earth made unto themselves, at that time, every man his god; gods of wood and stone. (Jasher 9:6)

The arrogance turned to vengeance as the Sumerian war lords, comforted in the security of their borders turned their attention thinking they could fight the Elohim who has brought the flood ten generations prior.

Their ruler, now ruling over seven generations of inhabitants by subjugating his cousins and imposing a military rule, now sought to fight the ‘gods’ in the heaven in direct assault by building a tower up to their abode in the clouds and using it as a military staging ground.

Tower of Babel

In Genesis, the second time recorded that the Lord God is translated as a plurality, said, Let us do down there and confuse their speech…” (Genesis 11:7)

This was amplified by the author of Jasher by stating “to the seventy angels who stood foremost before him, to those who were near to him, saying, Come let us descend and confuse their tongues, that one man shall not understand the language of his neighbor, and they did so unto them.” (Jasher 9:32) It is of interest that scholars suggest that seventy tribes or nations came out of the Tower of Babel experience.

Elohim to the ancient writers, though monotheistic in their understanding of a Supreme God and Creator, also viewed the pantheon of supernatural beings created by and in the presence and at the service of the Almighty One, as gods consistent with the Sumerian world view of religious thought.

Yahweh Elohim, the manifestation of the Elohim to mankind, was viewed by the Hebrew thought as reflective of the One God, yet the message and visual imagery came many times by emissaries sent by the direct charge of the Elohim.

That they, the angelic beings created in the higher dimensions who served next to the Creator God, would at times be viewed as God, was not inconsistent with the postdiluvian Hebrew thought.

The debacle of the ultimate catastrophic collapse of the Tower of Babel including earthquakes, massive earth fissuring which swallowed up a third part of the tower, also included a strange phenomenon in which the population became aphasic to their mother tongue, they could hear, but could not comprehend, and when they spoke, their language was different.

Was it the role of the angels to carry a new root language to each different family tribe with impressions of oracular vibrations still unknown to this day? Some scholars have suggested that language was by mental telepathy and that the telepathic powers of the brain were diminished so man had to communicate by oral speech. From Babel, they migrated and settled in new homelands: the Indus Valley, China, Egypt, the proto-Mediterranean basin and Meso-America.

The empire of Nimrod was dispersed, vast migrations moved out to all corners of the globe. The early Sumerian empire was subdued, but the power of Nimrod was not broken. His heart was hardened and his people consolidated around him. Yet the glory days were over and fading fast.

The world, as envisioned by Hancock, in Footprints of the Gods, had already been mapped, explored and the cardinal points had been determined. Pangea was still intact, her subterranean crust fractured by the Noachian flood, and the continental drift had not yet begun.

The post-Babel empire of Nimrod was significantly reorganized and whereas before the Babel debacle, Nimrod controlled his empire by the might of his own sword, he now sought military alliances to maintain primacy in the military-diplomatic arena.

Nimrod’s subjects also renamed their leader, Nimrod, to Amraphel. According to the author of Jasher, the title of Amraphel was given because, “at the tower his princes and men fell through his (Nimrod’s) means” (Jasher 11:6)

One of Nimrod/Amraphel’s earliest allies was the king of Elam, Chedorlaomer, who had subdued the children of Ham who lived in the vail of Shiddon in the cities of the plains.

The Return of Abram to Sumeria

Still in his youth, at the age of forty nine, as sexual maturity took longer to achieve in those days, Abram knew it was time to return to the land of his family. It was the first jubilee (forty-nine years) of Abram’s life when Nahor, Abram’s grandfather died. A large family reunion was called in Sumeria.

Peleg, the great grandfather of Nahor had died a year earlier. The name of Peleg meant ‘division’. Upon his birth, the continents of the earth were split and were divided and upon his death, the Babel experience caused the massive migration and division of the children of Noah. The political unrest was settling down and Nimrod, now called Amraphel with his allies were finishing the consolidation of the remnant of his post-Babel empire.

Abram, now absent from his fathers house for thirty-nine years and commencing the celebration of his fiftieth birthday, he returned to the funerary celebration of his noted grandfather, also revered sage and priest of the Sumerian cults. It was at this funeral celebration that the religious reformationist, Abram sought to start a revolt in the Sumerian religious hierarchy.

At his father home, Abram watched and observed the twelve statues of Terah, noting that by placing food before the altars, the idols were unable to reciprocate and eat. He confronted his father, who acknowledged that the religious and political power was so interwoven in the early Sumerian culture, that to initiate such a reform would be political and personal suicide for him and his family.

Abram settled down, and married his half-sister, Sara, while Nahor also married, Milcah, the daughter of Harran, and they both started their own families. One day, Abram took a hatchet and destroyed all the idols except the largest central idol in which he placed the hatchet.

He then told his father that when placing the food before the idols they all reached and grabbed the food before the senior idol was able to reach the food, so he therefore chopped them up. The fact that Terah did not believe his son, only highlighted the fact even Terah did not believe the idols were capable of any animate activity.

This incident was transmitted by Terah to the king, Nimrod, who had Abram imprisoned after Abram directly implicated the king with the religious deception, “O foolish, simple and ignorant king, woe unto thee forever.

I thought thou wouldst teach thy servants the upright way, but thou hast not done this, but hast filled the whole earth with thy sins and the sins of thy people who have followed thy ways.” (Jasher XI:56-57)

This admonition turned to warning, “if thy wicked heart will not hearken to my words to cause thee to forsake thy evil ways, and to serve the eternal God, then wilt thou die in shame in the latter days, thou, thy people and all who are connected with thee, hearing thy words or walking in thy evil ways.” (Jasher XI: 60)

Ten days later, Abram with his brother Haran, now eighty-two years old, were thrown in a fiery furnace. Haran was implicated by his father, Terah, as the instigator of the initial deception/ploy of switching the boy Abram for a servant’s son, who was then earlier killed by the king. As reminiscent in the later incident of Shadrack, Meshack, and Abednego, Abram was not killed in the fiery inferno, but his brother was reduced to ashes.

Three days in the fiery inferno, before the Akkadian multitudes, Abram stayed according to ancient sources. After this, Nimrod asked “Abram, O servant of the God who is in heaven,”…”come hither before me”. (Ibid XII:32) Abram was sent away in peace with many gift, gold, silver and pearls including many of the king’s servants including Oni, and the most faithful one, Eliezar plus three hundred men.

Two years of peace reigned between Abram and Nimrod until one day Eliezar heard rumors within the court of Nimrod that an assassination attempt was to be made on Abram’s life.

The king had a prophetic dream that Abram came after him with a sword and when he turned around, he threw an egg on him, which became a river, which drowned his troops.

The river turned back into an egg from which came forth birds, which came down and plucked out the eyes of Nimrod as he was escaping from the scene of battle.

A wise man in the court of Nimrod, Anuki, interpreted the dream that Nimrod/Amrophel and Abram would one day meet on the battlefield in the vale of Siddim and Abram would destroy not only his troops but the hardened warriors of his three allies after their victory over the Kings of the Cities of the Valley of Siddim.

The memory of the exploding star fifty two years prior came back to the king, vowing now to eliminate Abram not only as a rival to the throne but as an enemy of the empire

Abram realizing that he would not dissuade his father to destroy the idols decided to appoint himself the vindicator of God’s justice. One night he arose in the middle of the night and set the whole temple complex on fire.

The fires leapt high engulfing all the idols and religious icons when his brother ran into the complex trying to save the idols. The ceilings collapsed and his brother Nahor died in the flames. His two brothers were now dead and Terah knew that Abram was his only salvation.

Some biblical critics have blamed Abram for the death of his brothers, Nahor, in the temple inferno, and Harran, earlier in the fiery furnace and for if he had only tempered his reformationist zeal, and both of his brother’s life might have been spared.

Abram flees Ur Casidim (Khaldini)

The exodus from Ur Casidim by Abram and the family of Terah was one in haste. This fact has puzzled theologians for centuries, not knowing the threat of assassination on Abram by Nimrod as depicted in the book of Jasher.

With the death of Nahor in the fiery temple inferno and Haran in the fiery furnaces of Nimrod of Casidim at the age of eighty two, Abram, along with his family and retinue, fled again to the house of Noah, who along with Shem had persuaded Terah to leave Ur Casidim and head towards Canaan.

There they settled or started a new city, Harran, named for Abram’s deceased brother. It was near the entrance to Canaan and Lebanon yet out of the political sphere of Nimrod’s saboteurs.

Terah retired away from the cosmopolitan area of Sumer and went back to the foothills of the Taurus Mountain in northwestern Armenia. There he built a new estate and temple complex at Harran. Tel Harran, now identified in the Ebla tablets was a noted town of commerce, built at the major northern crossroad center between Sumer and western Asia.

The temple complex built in Harran has been reconstructed by archeologists and noted to be a mirror image of the central Sumerian religious complex to Nannar/Sin in Ur.

What is of interest in the saga of the dream of Nimrod, is that the wise man, a Chaldi, who interpreted the dream was called Anuki. This returns us to the works of Zecharia Sitchin in which the name Annukian referred to those peoples who initially colonized earth as inhabitants when they came from the planet, Marduk, and was translated from Sumerian as “Those who from Heaven to Earth came.” (Sitchen, Zecharia, When Time Began, Avon Books, The Hearst Corp., NY p. 10) (aici nu sint de acord, sitchin a fost un instigator)

According to the author of the Book of Jubilees, a tenth of spirits forms of the antediluvian Nephilim with the Angel Mastema were allowed to interact not physically but in the spirit with the inhabitants of the post-flood era. (Jasher 10:8)

Abram, the Scion of the Sumerian Head of State.

At the age of seventy five, Abram is living in the vicinity of Harran and possibly at this time he assumed kingship at Damascus, a noted foreigner with an armed retinue. Here we see a family involved in the political and religious life of Sumeria, a high class family of noble birth who lived and mingled with the high echelons of Sumerian society.

Nicholas of Damascus, reporting in his fourth book states, “Abram reigned at Damascus, being a foreigner who came with an army out of the land above Babylon called the land of the Chaldeans.

But after a long time he got up, and removed from the country also with his people, and went into the land the called the land of Canaan but now the land of Judea” (italics supplied) (Fasold, Ibid. p. 186.)

For fourteen years, Abram lives on the corridor of the fertile crescent before descending into the land of Shem’s inheritance, Canaan. On a crystal clear night, he was observing the heavens to predict the rains and seasonal changes, when the Lord spoke to him.

“Get the out of thy country, and from thy kindred and from thy father’s house, unto a land that I will shew thee; and I will make of thee a great nation and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: and I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.” (Gen 12:1-3)

AB RAM , his Sumerian name meant “Father’s Beloved”. Terah, his father, not only was the head of the royal hosts of Nimrod, but also high priest of Ur and accepted in the highest ranks

to performs the religious ceremonies at Nimmiru.

The Abram as some picture in the Hebrew scriptures was not a marauding nomad. When arriving in Egypt, he is immediately taken to the presence of the king of Egypt. From there he engages in social, scientific and political discourse and negotiates treaties with dignitaries at high levels.

When cohabitating with the Canaanites, we find Abram careful to avoid local conflicts even with local rights such as water wells. Here we see a person trained in the fine arts of negotiation and diplomacy.

Ancient linguists early compared the Hebrew word Ibri with the word Hapiru which the Egyptian, Assyrian and Babylonians in the seventeenth and eighteenth century called groups of western Semites who pillaged and invaded the borders of the civilized city states.

They were the bandits of the era. Yet when we see Abraham becoming involved in the War of the Kings, he refuses to take any booty for himself, reflecting the high conduct of a person of his stature.

The Royal Lineage of Abram

Here was a family of royal lineage, who claimed descent from the first born from the House of Shem: Arphaxad, Selah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug, Nahor, Terah, and Abram. Yet it is to Eber in which the biblical name Hebrew or Ibri is derived which gives the family of Abraham its greatest identity.

Sitchen claims that the root word means “to cross” and rather than the Semitic origin we must look to Sumerian linguists for the meaning. He therefore directs us to look to the biblical suffix i when applied to a person means “a native of”. Therefore Gileadi meant a native of Gilead. In the same token, Ibri meant a native of the place called “Crossing”, which was the Sumerian name for Nippur: NI.IB.RU.

To Sitchen, this was the Original Navel of the Earth, the pre-diluvium center of civilization. When transferring linguistics from Sumerian to Akkadian/Hebrew, the n was dropped off. So Abram, the Ibri, was actually Abram of Ni-ib-ri, a man of Nippurian origin. (Sitchen, Zechariah, The Wars of Gods and Men, Avon Books, The Hearst Corp. 1350 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10019 p. 294-295)

Nippur was noted in ancient Sumerian society as a consecrated city, the navel or center of Sumerian religious society. It was the nerve center where astronomy was utilized and entrusted to the priestly caste and where the Nippurian calendar originated as soon as the orbits of the post-diluvium sun, earth, and moon were calculated.

Scholars know today this calendar was synthesized about 4000 BC in the age of Taurus. The Hebrew calendar was derived from this Nippurian calendar as it based its origin on the beginning year of 3760 BC (where 1997 is the Jewish year of 5757) The Jewish sages recount that these are the years that have passed “since counting [of years] began” (Ibid p.296)

So Abram, turned his sights and the destiny of his family south, to the land of the Canaanites. A new era in his life was about to begin. The identity as the son of the Sumerian Oracle Priest would soon evolve in the life of a Western Potentate, and one who had a special destiny to fulfill.

To be continued, Part II

Return to Beginning


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