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Wednesday, June 11, 2014

EGIPTUL MISTIC

Pregatind extraordinarul nostru eveniment-EGIPTUL MISTIC-O INCURSIUNE IN VECHILE RITUALURI VINDECATOARE ALE EGIPTULUI MAGIC, va propun o documentatie interesanta despre locul unde o sa ne petrecem 3 zile, invaluiti in nisipurile vindecatoare din Abydos, intr-unul din cele mai sacre locuri ale Egiptului antic.


Abydoss (Abjou):
 (The Osireion).


Abydoss has revealed itself to be one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt. It is the site of the pre-dynastic royal graveyard, which has revealed some interesting links with Sumeria; and of the Osireion, an enigmatic underground chamber connected to the Nile, fashioned from enormous blocks the style of which is comparable only with that seen at the Valley temple, Giza. The temple of the Sixth Dynasty Seti I was later built over this site, which assuredly dates from an earlier time.




Lockyer called Abydoss 'One of the holiest places in Egypt from the very earliest of times(2).


Quick Links:  



   The Temple of Seti I (The 'House of a Million Years')



The Temple of Seti I (1,307-1,291 BC)
(The house of millions of years) – Considered to have been built towards the end of Seti’s reign.
The entrance to the Temple of Seti I (right)

Seti I, the second king of the 19th Dynasty was the son of Ramesses I and Queen Sitre. He reconciled with the Hittites who were becoming the most powerful state in the region.

Seti I and his heir, Ramesses II campaigned against Kadesh. In Karnak he completed his father's plan by converting the court between the second and third pylons into a vast hypostyle hall. He built his vast mortuary complex at Abydos.

Seti-I was entombed in the Valley of the Kings where he was finally entombed was vandalized and his body was relocated to Deir el Bahri. The mummy of Seti I was found at Dayru l-Bahri in 1881.

The temple of Seti I contains the famous Abydoss 'King-List'.
abydoss king-list   
The list of 120 Gods of Ancient Egypt and the ‘king list’, on the walls (21).

The Temple of Seti I is also gaining a reputation for these unusual engravings found on one of the ceiling beams.
These engravings have aroused much attention in the past... Their apparent similarity to modern vehicles is impelling,  but it has been suggested that they are the product of two sets of hieroglyphs, one over the other... and however unusual that may be, the idea seems borne out by looking further along the beam...
  
In the centre image above, an ankh can be clearly seen superimposed by an other symbol.

 
...One of the several images on the temple walls...explained as incense or 'burnt offerings'. This style of pipe, with hands holding an 'incense' bowl, are found in other sacred temples in Egypt, noticeably in South America.

Alignments:

The Temple of Seti I is said to be aligned in the same way as ‘The way of the dead’ atTeotihuacán, east of due north (21).


The Temple of Seti I was built long after the Osireion (Below):

It is said that Seti I was directed to build at this location and that he turned the temple when he found the Osireion, but the alignment between the two temples makes it is more likely that he was aware of the presence of the Osireion when he began to build his temple.





   The Osireion (Strabo's Well, The Fountain of Abydoss).

The water in the temple is an indication of the level of the Nile approx' 6.5 miles away. It measures approximately 20 x 30m, is 50ft lower and is made of a clearly different construction style to that of the temple of Seti I (Sixth Dynasty) above. The water level insde the temple is attached to the water table.

As Seti-I began the search for a location for his Temple, he  was lead to a location north of Luxor in the bend of the River Nile. There he began to dig the foundation for his Temple. What he discovered was the Osireion, or the ancient temple of Osiris.

Whether he actually knew that the Osireion was there, perhaps we will never know, but upon finding this ancient temple in the path of his new temple, he turned his new temple to the left. It is the only temple in Egypt that makes an 'L' turn.
 
The Osireion is aligned with the temple of Seti I, above...

The area is constructed of blocks up to 25 ft long. Almost flush with the water table and therefore the Nile, it is likely it was always part filled with water, leaving a central plinth protruding like an island in the centre. The walls surrounding the building are 20 ft thick, red sandstone. The chamber is surrounded by a ‘moat’ with ‘cells’ coming off it, six to the east, six to the west, two to the south and three to the north. The whole structure was enclosed within an outer wall of limestone.

Osirion
The stairs can be used as an indication of scale.

Osirion
The roof has collapsed, but compare the upper masonry with the lower.

Osirion
17 Cubicles surround the central area.

Osirion
The perfect pillar... (note the water-line)

Made of 'rose-coloured Aswan granite', the ten central columns each measure 2.096m² (5)  and 4.19²m high (5).
Note: www.egyptsites.co.uk states that they are 2.6m², while www.touregypt.net says 2.4m² x just over 3.5m high)



The dimensions of each stone can therefore be estimated at between (2.096 x 2.096 x 4.16 = 18.4m³), and (2.5 x 2.5 x 3.5 = 21.87m³)
Using the average density of granite at 2.7g/cm: we arrive at an estimated weight of between 49.68 tons and 59 tons.

Osirion  Osirion
Some examples of the Various 'Mortice and Tennon' joins used in the construction.

Osirion
The entrance to the rear ante-chamber with its spectacular lintel...
This structure shows significant architectural differences to the temple above and is believed to be far older. It shows several similarities to the ‘Valley Temple’ at Ghiza (21), which is also recognised as an early-dynasty structure. In relation to this issue, it is perhaps significant that the temple Osireion is dedicated to Osiris, while the 'Valley temple' at Giza is associated to Isis. (More on this below).

  Osirion Osirion
and behind which, is an even more spectacular stone tunnel/arch...


Annual Report from the Smithsonian Institute, 1914, pp. 579-585.

Excavations at Abydoss: Naville, Edouard. (Extract)



'There is no longer any doubt, then, that we have discovered what Strabo calls  the well or the fountain of Abydos. He spoke of it as being near the temple, at a great depth, and remarkable for some corridors whose ceilings were formed of enormous monolithic blocks. That is exactly what we have found.


These cells were 17 in number, 6 on each of the long side. There was one in the middle of the wall at the back; in passing through it one came in the rear to the large hall which was the tomb of Osiris. A careful study of the sculptures confirmed the opinion that this was a funeral hall where the remains of the god were expected to be found. but this hall did not form part of the original edifice.

It must have been constructed underground when Seti I built the temple of the god. The tomb of Osiris was very near the great reservoir. Nothing revealed its presence; the entrance to it was exactly like that to all the other cells, the back of it being walled up after they had dug through it...

...We have as yet no certain indications of the date of the construction; but the style, the size of the materials, the complete absence of all ornamentation, all indicate very great antiquity. Up to present time what is called the temple of the Sphinx at Gizeh has always been considered one of the most ancient edifices of Egypt. It is contemporaneous with the pyramid of Chefren...

'The reservoir of Abydos being of a similar composition, but of much larger materials, is of a still more archaic character, and i would not be surprised if this were the most ancient structure in Egypt'


Myth and Legend:

It is said that a catfish swallowed the phallus of Osiris when he was cut into pieces by Seth. The Osireion is traditionally known as it's final resting place. In reverence of this myth, catfish are left in the water to this day, as the photo on the right demonstrates, taken at the Osireion in 2003.






The layer of water in the Osireion is reminiscent of the 'Holy wells' or 'Well shrines' of pagan Britain which were noted for their healing properties, and in many cases were popular places of pilgrimage. The picture (left), is an old print of St. Triduana's reliquary chapel (well-shrine) in Edinburgh (1).



Astronomy:

Sir N. Lockyer says this on the subject: 'The orientations given by different authors are so conflicting that no certainty can be claimed, but it is possible that at Abydoss one of the mounds is not far from the amplitude shown in the tables for the sun in the Nile valley at sunset at eh summer-solstice' (2).



Old Images of the Osireion.

 






   The Osireion and the Valley Temple:
Are they contemporary structures?
It has been suggested that the Osireion and the Valley temple at Giza are contemporary structures. There are several factors which indicate that this may be the case, which would make the Osireion a 4th dynasty structure. 

We know that the temple of Seti I was built in the 6th Dynasty (4th Dynasty (2,613–2,498 BC),  6th Dynasty (2345–2181 BC) (7))only a matter of a hundred years later, and in a completely different style of architecture. It is worth exploring the idea that the Osireion and the Valley temple might at least share a common theme in construction.
  • The two buildings (Osireion and Valley Temple) are clearly similar in design and appearance.
   
Both structures were made from large, unadorned and lintelled pillars. Two rows running along the length with five pillars in each, creating a central chamber. Both structures were covered over, and both were associated with the Nile. 

The Osireion has 17 chambers running along the walls while the Valley Temple has 17 sockets in the floor for statues. Naville, who excavated the site in 1913-14, immediately recognised the similarities between Khafre's Valley Temple at Giza and the Osireion, and concluded that they were of the same Old Kingdom era.

  • Both Giza and the Osireion show the same specific masonry technique.
  
The same 'manoeuvring protuberances' were left on the otherwise finished blocks. These are the only two known examples of this technique in early dynastic structures.

  • The Osireion is associated with Osiris, and the Valley temple to Isis, his consort and sister, as demonstrated by the Inventory Stela, discovered by Auguste Mariette in the 1850's. It reads as follows:


Long live The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Khufu, given life...

He found the house of Isis, Mistress of the Pyramid, by the side of the hollow of Hwran (The Sphinx)
...and he built his pyramid beside the temple of this goddess and he built a pyramid for the King's daughter Henutsen beside this temple.
The place of Hwran Horemakhet is on the South side of the House of Isis, Mistress of the pyramid.
He restored the statue, all covered in painting, of the guardian of the atmosphere, who guides the winds with his gaze.
He replaced the back part of the Nemes head-dress, which was missing with gilded stone.
The figure of this god, cut in stone, is solid and will last to eternity, keeping its face looking always to the East '. (10)


The association with Isis on this stela (whether from the 4th of 12th dynasty) is of particular interest as it appears to confirm the early-dynastic history of the unification of 'upper' and 'lower' Egypt and the primal Egyptian myth of Osiris and Isis, in relation to these temples. These temples suggest a commonality, whilst adhering to the theme of the Isis/Osiris myths. The Osireion is associated with Osiris, and the Valley temple to Isis, his consort, sister and mother. The Ghiza pyramids are cardinally orientated (equinoxially), while the great temples in the south of Egypt such as Karnack, Denderra and The Temple of Seti (Osireion), are orientated to the solstices. The symbolic act of unification, was not only concerned with the physical boundaries of  Egypt,  but also the solar year.

Both Abydoss (Near the Osireion) and Saqqara (Near Giza) served as Royal Graveyards for the Early Dynastic Pharaohs.




   The Royal Graveyard:


The royal graveyard at Abydoss contains some the earliest graves in Egyptian history and any includes several interesting Mesopotamian discoveries which puts the origin of the dynasties into question.


The graveyard at Abydoss contains the mastabas of the first dynasty pharaohs.
This round-topped stellae (right), of King Djet, the 4th King of the 1st Dynasty was probably originally erected on the east side of his royal mastaba tomb. It was found in a royal necropolis at Abdyoss, where most kings of the 1st Dynasty were buried. It was created of limestone, a relatively soft stone. The Horus falcon perches on top of the rectangular serekh, which contains the hieroglyph of a cobra, the actual name of the king.  (Uadji? Djet?)
Note the similarity to the 'buttress' walls in the cartouche (right), and the buttress walls of the original Granite coffer of Menkaure, from Ghiza (below).


Note also the similarity with both these early Egyptian symbols and the buttress walls of both the Ziggurat of Ur (below, left) and Saqqara (below, right).

 

Article: Hieroglyphs Dated Back to 3,200 BC at Abydoss:

Recent discoveries at the site of Abydoss have demonstrated that Egyptian hieroglyphs date back at least to the 32nd century BC. Notably older than earlier estimates, these discoveries give Egypt pride of place for the oldest known system of writing. They have also forced a revision of some assumptions about the development of Egyptian hieroglyphs. The existence of ideograms alongside phonetic symbols led linguists to the conclusion that hieroglyphs began as a rudimentary series of ideographic characters, where one sign meant one thing, independently of the spoken word; and that the system gradually developed a phonetic component as greater sophistication was needed. The discoveries at Abydoss seem to contradict this model.
At issue are small tags, perforated with a hole in one corner, bearing one or more primitive carvings similar to classic hieroglyphs. Some of these carvings are more obviously similar to known hieroglyphs than others, and the archaeologists dealing with them found that if these carvings were read like standard Egyptian writing, they not only made sense in a generic fashion, but they actually clarified the nature of the discovery: they were tied to goods that were brought to the tomb then under excavation, and identified the nature of those goods. Thus, Egyptian writing was already phonetic at that early date.


The 'Gebel el Arak' knife:

This ritual knife was discovered in the Royal cemetery at Abydoss. The inscriptions on it are reminiscent of Sumerian and Mesopotamian engravings. They appear to depict a battle on one side and the 'Gilgamesh' figure flanked by two lions on the other.

 
Mesopotamian motifs in Egyptian art: The image on the ivory handle of the flint knife represents the Mesopotamian hero Gilgamesh subduing two lions, and the same theme is repeated on a wall painting from Hierakonpolis, belonging to one of the earliest brick buildings in southern Egypt (3). (Dry-mud brick buildings were a Mesopotamian invention).

The Oldest Boats in The World:
Article: ScienceDaily (Nov. 2, 2000) — A fleet of the oldest built wooden boats in the world, located in the desert sands of Abydos, Egypt-more than eight miles from the river Nile-are painstakingly being excavated by archeologists. The work is revealing remarkable new evidence about the wealth, power and technological prowess of the earliest days of Egyptian civilization. To date, 14 of the large vessels, dating from 3000 B.C. and estimated to be between 60 and 80 feet long, have been identified.


References:

1). P. Devereux. Living Ancient Wisdom. 2002. Rider Publishers.

2). J. Norman Lockyer. The Dawn of Astronomy 1964. M.I.T. Press.
3). G. Daniels. The First Civilisations. 1968. Pelican Books.
4). http://www.egyptsites.co.uk/upper/abydos/seti.html
5). http://sketchup.google.com/3dwarehouse/details?mid=73a487008af17879a6f9c7ea3d6af7ab
6). http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/setiabydos.htm
7). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sixth_Dynasty_of_Egypt
10). Ian Lawton & Chris Ogilvie-Herald. Giza: The Truth. 1999. Virgin Publishing.
21). John Ivimy. The Sphinx and the Megaliths. 1975. Harper and Row.


SOURCE ANCIENT WISDOM

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