Thursday, August 16, 2012
Stars:Meryl Streep, Roseanne and Ed Begley Jr. |
Snippets from pilot "Explain This" produced by Allan Spreen and Kevin McMahon who also directs. This bit highlights the Calico Dig has proof of human beings existence on this continent for over 200,000 years. Up until recently it has been believed that humans have only been here for 11,000 years.
In my previous essay I explained the dollar sign and its association with the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil in the Garden of Eden. I showed that it was another form of the caduceus, the magical wand crawling with serpents that the Greek Hermes and the Roman Mercury used to transform reality. I showed that this symbol actually denotes an alchemical transmutation, such as turning lead into gold.
I also talked about how the coining of money was a sort of Promethean act. Money is traditionally issued by a sovereign entity, such as a king, and it is an expression of his sovereignty. It defines the relative value of everything in his kingdom, so in a way it is like the king taking the place of God and creating his own reality. However, the actual historical roots of money are with the priesthoods of old. Money was a token that people received in exchange for their tithes to the temples. In this way, the money was metaphorically bestowed on the populace by the gods.
Now there were a few examples of predecessors, but really, historians consider the origin of coin money to be from around 3000 B.C, in the Temples of Ishtar in ancient Mesopotamia. It was created for use in a public religious rite known as "sacred prostitution." The priestesses of the fertility goddess served her by offering themselves as representatives of her to male worshippers. It was thought that if the men simulated intercourse with the goddess, this would stimulate fertility in the land.
A very important part of the ritual was the donation that occurred beforehand. The worshipper was expected to make offerings to the goddess in the form of wheat. This was fitting, since wheat was the main agricultural product that they were asking the goddess to stimulate the production of.
During religious festivals, worshippers would bring a portion of their yearly wheat crop to the temple. After being symbolically offered to the patron god or gods, the offerings were used to feed all of the priests, priestesses, and temple support staff. In exchange for their sacrifices, the men received one coin for each bushel of wheat, and each coin would entitle them to a visit with one of the priestesses.
This is how the coin got its name: "shekel" means "bushel of wheat." The coin featured a sheaf of wheat on one side, and a depiction of Ishtar on the other. This identification of money with wheat continues into the present day, where words that translate as "bread" all over the world are used as slang terms for money.
This is exactly how and why coin money was produced by the ancient Greeks as well. Beginning in 1000 B.C., the Greeks minted coins as tokens given to the worshippers of Dionysus in exchange for the donation of a bull to the Dionysian temple. These bulls would all be sacrificed at the annual celebration known as the "sacred feast", to which Dionysus himself was invited. Half of the meat would be burned in honor of the god, while the rest was shared by the congregants – all those who could furnish a coin as proof of their donation.
When the large-scale minting of coins in Rome began in 269 B.C., this too had a connection to the divine. The new silver coin, called the "denarius," was minted in the temple of Juno Moneta. Juno was the wife of Jupiter. "Moneta" means "to warn." This appellation of Juno's stems from an incident in which the sacred geese at her temple allegedly warned the Romans of an impending attack from the Gauls.
The Romans saw Juno as the protectress of the state. The issuance of money was one of the activities in Rome that she was thought to preside over. It is from Juno's title of "Moneta" that the English words "money", "monetary", and "mint" are derived.
So that is the origin of coin money. In the ancient world, the amount of money circulating in a society was necessarily limited by the amount of gold and silver available to them to mint. This restricted the velocity of money, and thus, the economic growth potential. And even if you did obtain economic growth through the increased availability of money, it could easily vanish if the coins were used to purchase imported goods.
Thus the Spanish, who looted the ancient temples of South America, covered with gold and silver, ended up losing it all within a few decades by trading with Holland and Britain. The Spaniards ended up cash-poor, and the huge influx of coin created a historic period of inflation for Britain called "the Great Price Revolution."
Now this is both the blessing and the curse of coin money: the value is in the coin. So if you spend it, lose it, or have it stolen from you, that value is no longer in your hands. This was a major problem in the ancient and medieval world: highway robbery. Every time you went anywhere, there was some thug waiting around the corner to rape your women and steal your silver. Robin Hood and his Merry Men couldn't have robbed from the rich if the rich didn't go around carrying hefty sacks full of cash. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, someone finally invented a solution to this problem, and, no surprise, it came from a religious "temple" of sorts: specifically, the Poor Knights of the Temple of Solomon.
Known in common parlance as the "Knights Templar," this was an elite fighting force of Catholic monks at the forefront of the European struggle to capture and control the Holy Land in the twelfth century and thirteenth centuries. Some of their original founders and patrons were the very people essentially responsible for getting Europe involved in the Crusades in the first place. The Church granted them a charter that basically established the Templars as a law unto themselves, accountable to no one but the Pope. Thus they were able to operate autonomously at their various bases throughout Europe.
The Templars began to amass wealth and power quickly. Their membership was taken from the cream of European aristocracy, and they were expected to take a vow of poverty upon joining, so each new initiate remitted to the order what was often considerable money and property. Wealthy families from all over Europe also donated lands and money as the Second Crusade mounted. The Templars set up "preceptories" throughout the continent.
These were conducted like semi-autonomous city-states, where the knights farmed their own food, ran their own hospitals, and engaged in the manufacture of arms, textiles, and other goods. Perhaps most importantly, this allowed them to issue loans with interest, circumventing the rules against usury in other Christian nations.
Previously, only Jews in Europe were permitted to charge interest, since their souls were considered lost already. At various times and places there were even laws actually forcing Jewish merchants to engage in no other trade except banking. It was a role the community needed someone to play, but the Jews became the scapegoats when the debts got too high and people needed to default. This happened frequently enough, and was the true cause for many medieval anti-Semitic pogroms. This is the role that the Templars essentially took over, with the blessing of the Church, at least in the beginning.
The Templars were, first and foremost, the official guardians of pilgrims en route to the Holy Land. This was supposedly the reason why the Order was created in the first place. In this capacity, they devised a system to protect pilgrims from robbery. Instead of loading themselves down with gold and provisions, which were likely to be stolen, the pilgrims would simply deposit some money in the form of gold or silver at the Templar preceptory nearest to their point of departure. From there they would make their way to Jerusalem along a pre-selected route consisting of a series of churches and cathedrals, which were themselves associated with nearby Templar preceptories, each featuring banking services.
At this point the pilgrim would present the banker with a "chit": a piece of paper that was encoded with ciphered information regarding the pilgrim's deposit at the originating bank. The pilgrim could then withdraw from the bank at his current location the amount of money he needed to pay for his stay at that particular stop on the route, or to make donations to the various churches, and could leave the rest in his "account." He could also make direct charges to the account for any goods or services which the Templars themselves were able to offer the pilgrim. The complex ciphers used by the Templars to encode their chits became famous, and one is still in use in Masonic lodges all over the world.
It is thus that the word "cheque" entered into the English and French languages. Indeed, a great many Middle English words pertaining to banking and commerce seem to have originated in one way or another with the Templars. In the case of "cheque", it came from the chequerboard clothe which Templar merchants and bankers used to square their accounts – to "check" their assets and liabilities.
It was thus by donations, money-lending and industrial trade that the Templars were able to expand their empire and become Europe's most powerful economic force. They were able to maintain this even after the Holy Land was finally lost in the Eighth Crusade in 1271.
But now they were without a cause. Some of Europe's kings and nobles, as well as many within the Church, began to wonder what the Templars were going to do next. They had money, property, authority, horses, weapons, and a standing army with nothing to do. Many European crown heads were heavily indebted to the Templars financially, and since they were also banned by papal decree from exercising any political authority over the knights, many of these kings understandably felt threatened.
There was another potential threat as well, of a more metaphysical nature. Not everyone understood exactly how the Templars had become so wealthy and powerful. It was thought that there must have been a secret to this. One rumor was that the original nine founding Templars had discovered a treasure within or beneath the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, where they had once housed their headquarters.
Theories of a secret Templar treasure have been the subject of hundreds of books throughout the years, and this idea is even at the heart of some rituals performed by modern Freemasons. It is often suggested that the knights might have found the lost Ark of the Covenant underneath the Temple Mount. How this would have made the Order wealthy, however, is something that still remains unexplained by the theorists.
Another rumor floating around at the end of the thirteenth century was that the Templars acquired their wealth because their founders had made a pact with the Devil. According to this theory they allegedly kept the Pope under their control, and compelled others to give them money, through the power of witchcraft. Stories had begun to leak from disgruntled ex-knights about secret initiation rituals. Word was getting around that there was an inner circle of Templars running the show with a hidden agenda. They were said to practice bizarre rituals of idol worship.
At dawn on Friday the Thirteenth, 1307, the Knights Templar in France were arrested en masse by King Philip IV's seneschals. Philip was out to get the order. He owed them a lot of money, and they had embarrassed him by refusing him membership to their club. Now he planned to use his influence on the papacy to have them disbanded. He had already sent in spies to join the Order and see if the rumors were true–that there was something unholy about the Templar initiation ceremony. What his spies reported back would make anyone's hair stand on end.
When the stories of the spies are combined with the confessions of the tortured knights, a remarkably cohesive, if horrific, pattern begins to form. At initiation, new recruits were forced to kiss the naked behind of one of their new brothers, although sometimes the backside of a goat or a cat was used. They were made to spit upon the Cross and revoke their Christian baptism. Some confessing knights said they were taught by their superiors that John the Baptist was the true Christ, not Jesus. They were then introduced to their new savior, whom they were to worship. It was a "head" of some sort named "Baphomet." None of the inquisitors knew what that meant at the time, and no translation was offered by any of the confessors.
This "Baphomet" head was variously said to be that of a goat, a bearded man, a woman, or an androgyne, and it was said that it had leathery skin. Some said that it had two or three faces, or that it had "feet." While it was generally described as a mummified flesh-and-blood relic of some sort, others said that it was a skull, or that it was made of brass or gold, or that it was merely a painting of a head. All witnesses agreed that it was terrifying to behold. They said that the head "prophesied" to them during the ceremonies, and gave them "wisdom." They believed that it "made them rich" and "caused the land to germinate."
By November 1307, even the Grand Master of the Templars himself, Jacques de Molay, had confessed to these charges, and more. Pope Clement had heard enough. He issued a bull ordering the arrest of all Templars in eight countries, including England, Ireland, Portugal, Italy and Germany. On August 12, 1308, he drew up a list of 127 offenses with which they were charged. In addition to the various acts of blasphemy and heresy already discussed, they were also accused of homosexual orgies, baby sacrifices, and of treasonous dealings with the Muslim enemy, the Saracens.
Trials dragged on for another five years. Many recanted their confessions, including the Grand Master, and those knights who did so were put to death in brutal ways. As he burned at the stake in 1314, Jacques De Molay uttered a curse against Pope Clement and King Philip, prophesying that they would both die within a year. They did.
Other knights stuck to their confessions, and were rewarded with lenient sentences of monastic penance not much different from the ascetic lifestyle they were already used to. The order was officially disbanded by the Pope, its property given over to other monastic orders. So ended what was once the greatest military and economic power in Europe.
Over seven centuries later, the legend of the Templars, and the mystery of Baphomet, is alive more than ever before. Hundreds of secret societies and religious orders claim descent from the Knights Templar in some form or another. Almost all mystical Hermetic groups claim to be perpetuating the Templar tradition, including various Masonic groups, Rosicrucian groups, and ritual magic orders, such as Aleister Crowley's O.T.O, or "Order of Oriental Templars." Rituals involving references to goats are still performed by Masons, and many Masonic scholars have written about Baphomet as being central to their mystic rites. Crowley even took on the name Baphomet as his own magical title for ritual purposes. Later, Anton LaVey from the Church of Satan made use of an image of the Baphomet goat-head within a pentagram as a logo for his pop culture devil cult, The Church of Satan.
But how did this image come to be the personification of the heinous Templar idol? The writer responsible for our modern understanding of Baphomet was a mid-nineteenth-century occult author named Eliphas Levi. Monsieur Levi's main thesis was that all forms of occultism and mysticism held a common, secret doctrine. Ritual magic, he said, utilized the existence of what he called the "Astral Light," defined as:
" … a natural and divine agent, at once corporeal and spiritual, an universal plastic mediator, a common receptacle for vibrations of movement and images of form, a fluid and a force which may be called, in a sense at least, the imagination of nature."
It was this agent which, he said, reflected the magician's will, expressed during a ritual, and actualized it into existence. He illustrated this concept with a hieroglyphic form which he called "Baphomet," claiming that this was the spiritual principle secretly revered by the Templars. Levi used this picture as the frontispiece for a number of his books.
Levi's image of Baphomet is virtually synonymous in the common mind with the image of Satan enthroned in Hell. That's only because most modern depictions of the Devil are based on the card of the same name in the popular Rider-Waite tarot deck, and this card is itself based on Levi's depiction of Baphomet. Certainly the creature presented by Levi looks demonic and evil, with the head and legs of a goat, along with a human torso sporting both male and female sexual organs. On its forehead is that foremost symbol of witchcraft, the pentagram, and between its horns issues forth an enflamed torch.
Levi repeatedly stated that Baphomet was not the same as the Devil, however. Rather, it was a symbol of a transcendental power beyond good and evil, man and beast, or male and female energies. Baphomet was, in Levi's view, the synthesis of all energy, both on Earth and in Heaven, forming something greater than the sum of its parts, capable of performing any transformation of matter which the human mind could conceive.
It is really by looking at the architectural motifs that decorate the Templar properties, and the items left within them, that we can get a clue as to what their secret doctrine actually was. The first place to look to is a series of depictions of similar creatures discovered on Templar properties by a nineteenth-century Austrian Orientalist scholar named Joseph, Baron von Hammer-Purgstall, presented in his book Mystery of Baphomet Revealed. In it, he documented a number of objects discovered at Templar properties throughout Europe.
Von Hammer-Purgstall's "Baphometic Idols," as they were later called by other authors, consisted mostly of statuettes, coffers and cups presenting strange images of inhuman figures. Seven of the images show only a head, and in two of these cases it is a head with two faces, much akin to the descriptions given by some Templars of the Baphomet head. Many of them were decorated with scenes of bizarre pagan sex rites, including someone bending over and kissing the buttocks of a strange idol.
One image in particular, from the lid to a coffer found in Burgundy, looks most especially like it might have influenced Eliphas Levi's depiction of Baphomet. It shows a female figure crowned with towers, just like the goddess Cybele of the ancient world. She is holding in each hand a chain, and connected to each chain, floating in the air and upside-down, are the figures of the Sun and the Moon. Below the figure's feet are a 7-pointed star and a pentagram. Between these is a human skull.
This combination of images was not unique, but rather turned up repeatedly at Templar properties. In other versions the figure is shown with a beard, making it quite clear that it was meant to be taken as androgynous, just like Levi's Baphomet.
A possible origin of the goat-headed aspect can be found in the Von Hammer-Purgstall collection as well. This is a depiction of a winged and goat-headed figure with human legs seated upon an eagle. Arabic, Greek, and Latin inscriptions were found among these images too. One in particular brings to mind the confessions of the Knights Templar about Baphomet. Von Hammer-Purgstall translated it thus:
"Let Mete be exalted, who causes things to bud and blossom! he is our root; it is one and seven; abjure, and abandon thyself to all pleasures."
You will recall that some confessing Templars said Baphomet "caused the land to germinate." Von Hammer-Purgstall believed that the Templars had been secret practitioners of Ophite Gnosticism. The word "Ophite" comes from the Greek word for "snake." They revered the serpent of Genesis as the one who bestowed wisdom upon mankind.
Like most Gnostics, the Ophites believed that the physical universe was a prison created by a demon named Ialdaboath. "Boath" comes from "Bythos" or "Behut", and means "chaos" or "the deep." It is connected to our modern words like "bath" and "baptize." Chaos was called "the Abyss, or "the primeval waters," and was analogous to the "First Matter" that the alchemists believed creation came from. "Yalda" means "son of." In Gnostic cosmology, Yaldaboath was the son of Sophia, or Wisdom. The implication is that chaos, the First Matter, is wisdom, and is the mother of creation.
There is plenty of evidence that the Templars did practice Gnosticism, including a coin that has been found with the words "Templi Secreti" or "Secret of the Temple" written upon it. On one side there is an unmistakable depiction of the Gnostic deity Abraxas. He was viewed as the "Great Archon", the union of good and evil, masculine and feminine. Like Baphomet, he is a chimera, with a hawk's head, a man's body, and serpents for legs. On the other side of the coin was a serpent with a lion's head, a common Gnostic depiction of Ialdaboath.
The word "Mete," found written next to the Baphometic idols surveyed by Von Hammer-Purgstall, was a Greek word for "wisdom." He believed "Baphomet" was an illusion to the Gnostic rite of "Bapho Metis," the "Baptism of Wisdom." Also, "Mete" has been connected by some linguists to the name of the sun god Mithras, worshipped by some Gnostics as an incarnation of divine wisdom. Aleister Crowley believed that "Baphomet" meant "Father Mithras."
More recently Dr. Hugh Schonfield, known for his work on the Dead Sea Scrolls, also proffered an interpretation that again led back to this concept of divine wisdom or gnosis. He said that "Baphomet," when transliterated into Aramaic and fed through a cipher, yields the word "Sophia," another Greek word meaning "wisdom."
Idries Shah, in his book The Sufis, wrote that the image of the goat head with a candle between its horns comes from the disciples of Abu el-Atahiyya, a famous Arab poet and mystic who led a cult called "the Revelers," or "the Wise Ones." Their insignia was this goat head, said to represent their tribe, the Aniza, meaning "goat." Another one of their signs was the pentagram.
However, another thing that comes to mind with the image of a candle between the horns is that miners used to mount candles on top of their helmets when they were down in the mines. This may connect the Aniza goat with the Azazel goat, the king of the jinn, or demons, who is worshiped as the true God by the Yezidi sect in Iraq.
The jinn are thought to live underground, and are said in folk tales to have invented mining and metallurgy, which Azazel, like Hephaestus to the Greeks and Vulcan to the Romans, was considered the patron deity of. Other legends link them with the children of Cain and Tubal-Cain in the Bible, who were likewise credited with inventing these vital arts of civilization.
With this in mind, it is worth noting that Idries Shah sees the Aniza goat as the inspiration for the goat-headed god worshipped by medieval European witches. Believed by the Church to be the Devil, they reveled in their secret unions with a figure they sometimes called the "coal-black smith." Like the Templars, their rituals also involved kissing a goat's behind and trampling on the cross. Like the Templars, they believed their hidden deity could bestow upon them fertility and wealth.
This word "Azazel" also reminds me of the word "Azoth." This was a personification of the alchemical "Alkahest," the "Universal Agent, " the "Philosopher's Stone", or the "Quintessence" — that is, the fifth element. This was the original substance from which, they said, the whole universe was formed. The alchemists believed that it was to be found within the "Prima Materia" or "First Matter" mentioned previously, the chaos or Abyss out of which the created world was formed. It was believed that this substance could be used to transform any one thing into another.
Again, like Baphomet, the Azoth was a chimera of difference creatures, an androgynous being in whose body all of the disparate elements of the universe were united to form a whole. The A and Z in its name represented the beginning and end of the alphabet. Aleister Crowley pointed out that "A" or "Aleph" is the first letter of both the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew alphabets. "O" is like "Omega", the final letter of the Greek Alphabet, and "T" or "Tau" is the final letter in Hebrew. So in every way possible, this creature represents the totality of existence combined, the sum of all knowledge collected all over the world in every culture. The name may be related to the Arabic "al-zÄ'Å«q", which means "the mercury."
A variety of similar chimera creatures were used by different alchemists throughout the centuries to represent this idea. One thing that they all have in common is that they are androgynous.
Most of the archons in the Gnostic creation myths were said to be androgynous. In the Cabala, along with other Jewish and Islamic folklore, the first Adam and Eve were a united being, and only separated after being seduced by the serpent, who was also a Hermaphroditic being, made up of the male Samael and the female Lilith. There are even hints of this in Genesis itself.
The word Hermaphrodite comes from Greek mythology. Hermes and Aphrodite were said to have had a son, Hermaphroditus, whose body became merged with that of a water nymph, to become both male and female. Generally he was depicted as a woman with male genitalia.
On Cyprus he was represented in the form of Herm. A herm was generally a pillar, on top of which was a bust of Hermes, or sometimes a full torso, and on the front there was an erect penis sticking out. Worshipers would rub it, with their hands, or worse, for good luck. I haven't been able to find any pictures, so we can only assume that the Hermaphroditic herms had breasts or other female attributes as well.
Interestingly, Aphrodite is the equivalent of the Roman Venus, or the Babylonian Ishtar, in whose temple money was invented, as a form of payment for the sacred prostitutes that were her priestesses. In other words, it is a union with the goddess of love and wisdom with the god of commerce, communication, and wisdom. In future installments of this series, I'll show you pictures of modern versions of this goddess holding a caduceus.
The caduceus turns up in another Greek myth of interest, that of Tiresias. He is said to have come upon a couple of serpents mating on a stick while walking through the woods and interrupted them, whereupon the goddess Hera cursed him by turning him into a woman. He stayed a woman for seven years, working as a sacred priestess or prostitute in Hera's temple.
The staff of Hermes can be found on Eliphas Levi's depiction of Baphomet, with his phallus forming the pole that the serpents are wrapped around. A connection between Baphomet and Hermes seems obvious, since Hermes was a satyr, half-man and half-goat. He was the father of this race of satyrs, seemingly equivalent to the seirim, or goat-demons of the Hebrews, of whom Azazel was seen as the progenitor.
Another place the caduceus turns up is right on the frontispiece for De Re Metallica, the book about metallurgy written by alchemist Giorgio Agricola, who was in charge of the silver mining at Jachimov Valley in Bohemia, where the first talers, or dollars, were minted. In this case it's the personal device of the printer, Johann Froben. Notice the two left hands holding the staff. The left, or sinister hand has always been associated with the Devil, whose mysteries are called the left-hand path of initiation.
To learn more about alchemy and economics, buy the book Money Grows on the Tree of Knowledge, by Tracy R. Twyman:The Invisible Hand, compiled in a DVD in mp3 format. SHIPPING IS FREE TO THE US AND CANADA, $7 to all other countries. BUY IT HERE. permalink
cybershamans (karmapolice) / CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
Enigma dacilor de pe Arcul lui Constantin. Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus. Constantin I sau Constantin cel Mare. Arch of Constantine.
THE GOATS OF HERMES WERE NOT GOATS
cybershamans (karmapolice) / CC BY-NC-ND 3.0
Jordanes said that the Ister river was named by the "Bessi" tribe of Thracians, thus showing ties between the Bessi and the goddess, Ishtar, the so-called Great Mother of the Heavenly Dragon. How close, therefore, were the Bessi to the core of the Sumerian dragon cult? Are we to trace the Europe-ward dragon bloodline primarily through the Bessi and their relatives?
Indeed, among the Bessi were a Dionysus-worshipping peoples called "Satrae," who were obviously the Satan-important peoples depicted by the Satyr creatures of Greek myth, one of which was Pan, son of Hermes. Indeed, indeed, for Herodotus said that the Bessi were the priestly class among the Satrae. Plus, the Bessi were called "mountain wolves" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bessi).
As Strabo said that the Getae Thracians lived on both sides of the Ister river, and as I suspect that the Bessi Thracians had been of the Busae/Bese/Buzi branch of Medes, how closely related were the Iranian ancestors of the Bessi Thracians to the Guti Iranians? As I define the Guti/Getae as the mythical goats, should I likewise view the Bessi as goats? Or were the Bessi depicted by yet another animal? The bee? Yes, I think the bee.
While Pan was made a "Satyr" by the Greek myth writers, the Scandinavian pantheon of gods included "Satr," suggesting that certain Scandinavians were from the Hermes-Pan bloodline. It seems apparent that the Greek-to-Scandinavia link was to some extent through the peoples of Pannonia (now Hungary), for the following reasons.
In the case of the Greek version of Satyrs, the creatures were made half goat for a reason. If Pan refers to the Poeni (i.e. the Phoenicians), couldn't the goat in him refer the Getae portion of a Poeni-Getae alliance that had formed? I don’t think it would be at all off the mark to suggest that a Poeni-Getae alliance produced a new and historically-important peoples of Pannonia. Moreover, as the Satrae branch of Thracians lived between the Nestus/Nestos and Strymon rivers, Pan probably depicted the Paeoni(ans) of the Strymon. Myth writers made Pannonius (symbol of Pannonia) the son of an Illyrian tribe (Autarieus), and because his alternative name was "Paeon," Pannonians were one and the same, the Paeoni. The Greek-to-Scandinavian connection would in this picture involve both a Getae-to-Goth link and a Pan-to-Van(ir) link.
I struggled with the similarities between "Poeni" and "Paeoni," since the Paeoni are not regarded as the Poeni/Phoenicians. That being the case, where/who are the Phoenicians that founded Europe as per the Zeus-Europa myth? In that it is well known that the Paeonians were very important in the European migrations, it seems to me that they were none other than the Europa Phoenicians. But if not, the problem yet remains as to which of the two Pan may have depicted.
"Poeni" was a term used by Romans to speak of Phoenicians that had founded Carthage, and Roman myth included the Trojan ruler, Aeneas, as part of the Carthaginian make-up. Then consider Herodotus’ statement that the Paeoni were of the Teucrian (Togarmite?) sect of Trojans, and one has further reason to make the Poeni-Paeoni equation. Moreover, in a previous chapter I gave details of certain Teucrian Trojans fleeing Troy (in the Trojan war) and settling in Phoenicia.
It is known that the Paeoni were related to the Mysians, while the Mysians, settled right next door to Lydia, were relatives of the Lydians, meaning that the Paeonians were definitely of the dragon bloodline and quite possibly, as were the Lydians, directly related to the Biblical Gog.
[Update August 2006 -- The Middle-Eastern root of the Mysians, both ethnically and linguistically, is therefore important. Late last month, I found a certain mount Masius in the Akkadian region of Gozan to be important to the Dionysus peoples. It is said that this mountain was named by Mash, son of Aram and brother of Gether (Genesis 10:23). The latter name will soon be exposed in this book to be the very basis of the dragon cult. In fact, the mythical god, Aether (= sky) may have been none other than Gether, and do note, therefore, that since “mushus” meant snake/dragon, that Mash and Gether together may have been the foundation of the phrase, Heavenly Dragon. Aether was Uranus in Greek myth. End Update] I realize that equating "goat" with "Goth" and “Getae” may strike the reader a little simplistically, for which reason I’ll show here that various foreign words for goat do reflect those people names. The Danish goat is "ged"; the Swedish goat is "get,"; and both the Dutch and the Norwegian goats are "geit.” Moreover, and I don’t think that this is a coincidence, the Greek goat is "tragos," evoking both the Trojans and "Draco." Behold that the Sanskrit (i.e. quasi-Aryan) goat is "mesha" (see http://www.geocities.com/mprnair/) i.e. like "Meshech" [and Mash!]. [Update June 2006 -- Remnants of websites no longer active show these quotes: "many were converted either willingly or by force to the Khazar religion. ... To them, the goat was a symbol of the name Koza..." and "The meaning of the last name of Miss Koza is "goat." I mention this here because I'm in the throws of tying the dragon line to proto-Khazars (Kassites) who lived in the Zagros mountains, and because I suspect that these mountains were inhabited by Kassites/Guti who had everything to do with naming the Hebrew/Semite region of Goza(n). End Update]
Yet online definitions given for "Bacchus" by myth experts say nothing of this sort, regardless of the logic, leading me to believe that the online myth experts are purposely deceiving their readers with false meanings of terms. Consider also that another name for Dionysus was “Zagreus,” an obvious clue as to the Zagros origins of the peoples he depicted, and yet not one online myth website mentioning this term has come out to make that connection.
Bacchus was worshipped by the Edoni(an) Thracians, and because these Edones were made to stem from a certain "Dryas" while the Paeoni were of a "Dryalus" cult, there must have been a close Edoni-Paeoni relationship. If the Getae were the Edones, as I believe, then this relationship should prove to be the Paeoni-Getae alliance that Pan depicted. In this way, both Pan and Hermes were rooted in Dryas/Dryalus. There was a Centaur by the name of Dryalus, and because Centaurs are at times portrayed with the ears of Satyrs, they were a peoples related to the Satrae Thracians. Because Dryalus was depicted in war with a pine tree for a spear, he and all other Centaurs are revealed as descendants of Attis, for the symbol of Attis was the pine tree.
It would be a good idea for you to skim a long quote showing that the very dragon-line peoples I have been tracing are consistently connected to a peoples associated with the wolf. I did not take this list of nations and subsequently decide that it was the dragon line, but rather after discovering the dragon line myself and finding also that it was symbolized by the wolf, I found the quote as substantiation for my findings. The author mentions nothing about the dragon line wherefore his treatment of the subject is not in any consideration of my topic. The italics are mine to emphasize the peoples that I have been tracing to the dragon, but learn also that the Getae, because they were the same as Dacians, were a wolf peoples:"According to Strabo, the original name of the Dacians was daoi. A tradition preserved by Hesychius informs us that daos was the Phrygian word for 'wolf.' P. Kretschmer had explained daos by the root *dhäu, 'to press, to squeeze, to strangle.' Among the words derived from this root we may note the Lydian Kandaules, the name of the Thracian war god, Kandaon, the Illyrian dhaunos (wolf), the god Daunus, and so on. The city of Daous-dava, in Lower Moesia, between the Danube and Mount Haemus, literally meant 'village of wolves.' Formerly, then, the Dacians called themselves 'wolves' or 'those who are like wolves,' who resemble wolves. Still according to Strabo, certain nomadic Scythians to the east of the Caspian Sea were also called daoi. The Latin authors called them Daliae, and some Greek historians daai. In all probability their ethnic name was derived from Iranian (Saka) dahae, 'wolf.' But similar names were not unusual among the Indo Europeans. South of the Caspian Sea lay Hyrcania, that is, in Eastern Iranian 'Vehrkana,' in Western Iranian 'Varkana,' literally the 'country of wolves' (from the Iranian root vehrka, 'wolf'). The nomadic tribes that inhabited it were called Hyrkanoi, 'the wolves,' by Greco-Latin authors. In Phrygia there was the tribe of the Orka (Orkoi).
"We may further cite the Lycaones of Arcadia, and Lycaonia or Lucaonia in Asia Minor, and especially the Arcadian Zeus Lykaios and Apollo Lykagenes; the latter surname has been explained as 'he of the she-wolf,' 'he born of the she-wolf,' that is, born of Leto in the shape of a she-wolf."
In J.H. Round's book, "Origin of the Stewarts," he writes concerning "Flaad", commonly recognized as a patriarch of the Scottish Stewarts but apparently having variable names such as "Flanchu," a man whom Round says was "known to his Irish kinsmen as Fleadan." He writes further:"Fleanchus ... is the Latinised form of Flann-chu, the Red or Ruddy Dog ... and is also a sobriquet - the Bloodhound. This nomenclature is evidently a reminiscence of the dog-totem or dog-divinity, etc...
"...dog-totems, arrayed in the Stewart tartan, and feasting, with fiery visage, on pancakes in the streets of Dol etc."
[Update June 2006 -- I have found (this month) that the Stewarts trace to Khazar rulers called "kagans,” and/or perhaps to Khazar cousins who used a similar term to describe themselves. It's perhaps pertinent that "khan," a common alternative of "kagan," resembles the Latin dog, "cano."
The following quote from a website (no longer active) shares alternatives for the two royalty titles (kagan and beg) used by Khazar administrations: ""Gyula and Kende denoting the ancient Khazar double kingship terms..." The "kende" term matches the "Kandaules" and "Kandaon" dog-terms mentioned in the above quote; Kandaules was a king of Lydia/Mysia! Moreover, Wikipedia writes (Italics mine): "Contemporary Arab historians related that the Khagan was purely a spiritual ruler or figurehead with limited powers, while the Bek was responsible for administration and military affairs"
This priest-definition of a kagan has significance because the Cohen surname, to which I have rooted the Stewarts (details later), is with very little doubt in my mind a variation of “kagan.” It can’t be a coincidence that “cohen” means “priest,” as anyone with the Cohen name will verify; in fact, the Biblical priest is “kahan” and “kohen” (Strong’s #3547 and 3548 respectively). Others have pointed out that the Khazar form of government reflects the modern style of Illuminati-run states, where Illuminatists are the invisible rulers pulling the strings of the visible politicians/kings. One may then consider viewing the Bessi Thracians as the kagans/illuminatists of the Satrae Thracians. Because I identify the Dryas Edones as the proto-Druid priests, I would suggest that the very concept of Illuminati is rooted in the Dryas rulers. Indeed, for “dryas” means “oak,” which was the symbol of Zeus, who was depicted with a third (all-seeing) eye. End Update]
The Ister river was renamed the Danube river (possibly by the proto-Danes as they passed through Pannonia). From Thrace it led (upstream) into Pannonia and Buda. There is solid confirmation in the Dacians (inhabiting the region) that this migratory route was taken by the Getae (because it is known that the Getae and Dacians were the same peoples). The term, “Dacian,” aside from appearing to mean, “dog people,” may stem from Dagon, a god situated in Israel around Gath, the inhabitants of which the Bible calls, "Gittites" (see Dacia map). Jordanes (a Goth historian) had no bones about connecting the Getae to the Goths, and he has the Goths migrating at one point from "Scandza" to the Azov sea (then Lake Maeotis):"We read that on their first migration ["from Scandza") the Goths dwelt in the land of Scythia near Lake Maeotis. On the second migration they went to Moesia, Thrace and Dacia..."
Jordanes then goes on to say that the Goths of the second/Thrace migration had "Zalmoxes" as their ruler, the god that was worshiped specifically by the Getae and Dacians. I would suggest that they ended up in Maeotis because their ancestors had lived there; they in turn had been from Armenia long before any of them ever entered Scandinavia. Jordanes doesn't mention the Goth-Armenian connection outright, yet he implies it succinctly when he copies Lucan: "They string Armenian bows with Getic cords."
Jordanes then echoes Pompeius Trogus who wrote that the Getae had stemmed from the Parthians. The Comarians of Aria (Iran) come to mind because the Goths were responsible for Odin’s Aesir cult. The Comarians-come-Cimmerians lived at Azov, a sea said to be named after the "Aes/As," a metal-weilding peoples that are equated by some with the Cimmerians themselves. "Aes/As" is a term associated with the Manes-to-Attis bloodline, in particular "Asies," mythical son of Cotys. Some report that the very term "Asia" was founded in the peoples depicted by Asies.
[Update August 2006 – I’ve argued that Cotys depicted the Getae, but it should be understood that he depicted Getae ancestors as well, and while I have mentioned several times that they were the Guti, I would now include the Cutha Hebrews/Semites of Gozan and their branch in proto-Israel: the pre-Philistine Gittites of Gath. End Update]
After discussing Amazonian women (the same ones whom Herodotus had joined to Gargarian men in the region of Colchis and Armenia), Jordanes asks of his own historical work, "Why does a story which deals with the men of the Goths have so much to say of their women?" In other words, Jordanes revealed the Getae/Goths as descended from Amazons, the very Amazons that Herodotus claimed sailed from the south to north shore of the Black sea, to Azov. But the Amazons were a Meshech peoples, I have found, and so I would not view Goths as a strictly Cimmerian peoples, but as a Gomer-Meshech mix. [Update August 2006 -- The question is, were the Gargarians/Gorgons the Gomerians of that mix, the Meshech, or likewise a Gomerian-Meshech mix? Or, were they a third peoples altogether? I have enough "smarts" on this subject now to confidently proclaim that the Gorgons were the foundation of the Latin/Lydian culture/peoples, even the Ladon/Lotan dragon of myth whom in historical terms were the Laz peoples of Colchis. The goddess, Laz, was given Nergal as her husband, and he just happened to be the god of the Cutha peoples...who were the goats of Gozan, and heavily stocked with pre-Israel Hebrew/Semite blood. More on this later. I’ve also become smart to the idea that the Eden cult was based in the Cutha-come-Edones, and that Goths can be rooted in the Cutha(h) (of Mesopotamia). End Update]
Jordanes then says that the Getae, in the time (6th century BC) of Cyrus (king of Persia), moved to Moesia, and in about 100 BC he has them further west in "Gothia," which the historian defines as Dacia (i.e. not Sweden though it too was "Gothia"). The Moesi (on the Danube) were the ancestors of the Lydians/Mysians!
The Goths that had not partaken in the migration away from Scandinavia, to Azov, who had remained behind in Gotland (Sweden), were later revealed by historical writings as the "Gautoi" and the "Geats." They are to be slightly distinguished from the Swedes ("Sweon"), however. Tacitus said that the Swedes lived beside the "Sitones," and that "...Sitones resemble the Suiones in all respects except that the Sitones have a woman as ruler." The Sitones can be traced to the "Sithone" branch of Edones, meaning that the Sithones were likewise Amazons/Meshech (at least in part).
Britannica tells that "the Jutes are the Eotens of the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf." Venantius Fortunatus called the Jutes, "Euthiones," again evoking the Edones. Some theorists insist that Odin came from the Goths rather than the Swedes, and I take this position since I'm convinced that "Woden/Odin" was derived from "Edoni/Eoten." One can see how the Swedes under the rule of Gotland would have mixed with Goths, or how the Sitones would have mixed with the Suiones, and therein would be explained the worship of Odin by Swedes as well as Goths. In other words, the Goths and Swedes came from the same root...whatever Odin and the Aesir pantheon represented.
Pan was associated with Dionysus in Thebes, and this city was the only continental Greek home of the Galli cult, also called the "Kabeiri" cult of Hephaistos. Cadmus (the son of Phoenix, and therefore a Phoenician) was king in Thebes, and, some say, its founder. Britannica says that Hermes "is often identified with...Cadmilus, one of the Cabeiri." Some websites equate Cadmilus with Cadmus. The myth writers made Cadmus king of Thebes through the help of a dragon. Consider also that Cadmus' wife, Harmonia, was in one myth version a daughter of Aphrodite [Apiru-dite?], wife of Hephaistos.
[Update August 2006 -- Harmonia therefore depicted Hebrew and Semite (esp. Arameans) peoples who initiated the Kabeiri cult. “Apiru” is an historical term referring to the non-Israelite Hebrews of Akkadia/Mesoptamia. To indicate the Aryan side of this dragon bloodline, Harmonia was made the daughter of Ares, he being a depiction of the Hros/Rus of Caucasia. This means that the Hros were mixed with the Apiru. As "Cadmus" would imply, those Apiru were either the Cutha themselves, or inter-married with the Cutha ("Cati" when in the Phoenician-Cilician theater). End Update]
Harmonia must be the dragon itself, the teeth of which became the rulers of Thebes. Her father was the chief dragon that put forth the dragon that Cadmus slew.
Dionysus was the son of Semele (or "Zemelo," a Thracian/Phrygian goddess), she being a Phoenician-Thracian mix because she was daughter to Cadmus and Harmonia. We thus see Hermes -- because he was associated with Dionysus -- very closely associated with Cadmus and Harmonia, this being important because it is generally understood that Europe was founded by this couple, or, at least, that the Celts were founded by them. In other words, Europe is based in Hermes and Harmonia.
Certainly if Hermes depicted an Armenian people in Greece, Pan, as his son, would depict the same, albeit mixed with certain Greeks. Wouldn't Hermes peoples have mixed with Harmonia since her name is essentially "Armenia"? One could even equate Hermes with Harmonia on that count alone. In historical fact according to Britannica, Lake Van was named after the "Biaina" peoples, who could have modified over time and over geography to "Poeni." Or to "Paeoni." Or to Pan. Some go so far as to equate Hermes with Cadmus, which then makes Hermes more solidly a Phoenician entity from Armenia.
We find in a myth that the mythical Prometheus was tied to a Caucasus mountain by either Bia or Hermes, depending on the myth writer, suggesting that Bia and Hermes were the same, even the Bia peoples of Armenia.
To support that Prometheus was a peoples that ventured to the extreme ends of the known world (i.e. to Britain), "NASA's nuclear power and propulsion technology development program for the exploration of the outer planets is called Project Prometheus." (italics mine)
Prometheus was the creator of mankind; he had Asia as his mother in at least one myth version, a term that is equivalent to the Aes/Assi peoples. Because he stole fire from Zeus, he appears to depict the inventors of metal: the Kabala of Chaldea/Halybes. "Rockefeller Center in New York City is a virtual shrine to Prometheus. His golden statue stands at the head of the central fountain"
Hermes, I deduce, depicted the Cotys migration (of Armenians) along the south shore of the Black sea, and we see that they arrived as far as Lydia (on the western end of Asia Minor), for just a couple of miles from the Lydian capital (Sardis) was the Hermus river. But this river was also called "Gadiz," similar to "Cotys," wherefore myth does not surprise us where Cotys brought forth "Lydus" (technically, Lydus was the son of Attis son of Cotys), the mythical symbol of Lydia.
[Update June 2006 -- I have recently tied Gades, an Atlantean city in western Spain, to the same family of "Cati/Katziri" peoples who put forth the Khazars. I have moreover identified their root in the "Cutha" Kabalists of Agade, that latter term being an ancient form of "Akkadia." I would not hesitate, and in fact I will attempt to prove, that the same Hermes Arcadians who founded Gadiz in Lydia were the same dragon, Ladon, found in western Atlantis. The two regions should be understood respectively as A-Cuthia and Ar-Cuthia, while Cadmus should be understood as Cutha-Mus. End Update]
Some Phrygians moved to Greece on the one hand as Hermes the goat line, and on the other as Apollo the wolf line. The Hermes line became centered at Arcadia and the wolf line immediately to the south in Laconia/Sparta ("Laco" means “wolf"). That these two lines merged and intermarried is evident. For example, Leda's daughter, Helen (of Troy), gave birth to Hermion, evoking a branch of Hermes even though Leda was a Spartan.
The Trojan war began when Paris stole Helen from Sparta (keep in mind that Helen was not likely a person but a peoples). The Trojans depicted by "Paris," upon losing the war and fleeing from Troy, probably partook in the Celt/Gaul migration under discussion, and settling in France, they named the city of Paris.
The Romans came from both the wolf and Hermes lines (since Romans worshipped both Mercury and Apollo). They equated Odin with Mercury, and the same comparison is made where "Wednesday" is named after Woden while the Latins and the French called that same day of the week after Mercury.
[Update August 2006 -- Now that I know the root of Odin in the Cutha, I can also root Hermes in the Cutha. That is, the Hermes migration along the southern side of the Black sea was the Cati/Cutha migration, even the same as that which named Cadmus, for indeed some have equated Hermes with Cadmus. To explain the difference in terms, I would suggest that the Armenian (probably Aramean) side of the bloodline used “Hermes,” while the Cutha side of the bloodline used “Cadmus.” This of course requires that the Arameans and Cutha were either one and the same peoples, or so strongly allied/mixed that they became a single peoples. Keep in mind that Josephus pegged Hul, son of Aram, as the founder of Armenia, while one may easily discover (by means to be shown later) the root of the Kabala in “Kether,” which must refer to Gether, Hul's brother. Consider also that "Cad-Mus" may have been formed to reflect Cutha-Mash, for Mash was yet a third brother. I should also mention here that I have recently (last month) traced the Kabala to the Spartans by independent means, to be explained later. End Update] The German historian Tacitus said that Germans worshiped their ancestors "Tuisto" and his son "Mannus," where "Tuisto" might once again be an allusion to Hermes, for he was "Thoth" to the Egyptians and "Taaut" to the Phoenicians. This could reveals that Hermes was viewed as the father of Manes, which makes great sense where both gods depicted Armenia. Behold that one of the three trunks of Mannus, according to Tacitus the German historian, were the "Herminones." May we ask if these Germanics were rooted in Hermion, Spartan offspring of Leda?
In “Bloodline of the Holy Grail,” a modern book concerned with the dragon blood of the Stewarts/Merovingians, there is this claim: "The Sicambrian Franks, from whose female line the Merovingians emerged, were associated with Grecian Arcadia..." This implies that all Franks had been descencded from Arcadia, the birthplace of Hermes. His being made born there in no way discredits my theory that Hermes depicted Armenia beforehand, for the gods were older than the people who worshipped them, and the god was often an honoring of ancestors from a previous homeland. I view the birth of Hermes in Arcadia as indicating the chief Greek settlement of the Armenian branch depicted by Hermes.
Yet this in no way discredits my theory that Hermes depicted Armenia beforehand, for the gods were older than the people who worshipped them, and quite often the places to which the peoples had their gods pinned down were new settled locations, although the god was often an honoring of their ancestors from the initial/previous homeland.
It is thought that "Tuisto" was the Norse god, "Ymir," that latter term a valid variation of "Gamir," an historically-popular designation for Gomerians/Cimmerians. Ymir was made the father of the Vanir giant, "Aegir" (still of the Norse gods), yet this term seems to depict the Aegean sea. Indeed, for Aegir was made the sea god. Aside from Ymir there was a "Gymir" mountain god (still of Norse myth) that is equated with Aegir. Moreover, Aegir was also known as "Hler," and this is a German term said to be relating to the Cimmerian sea of Azov, perhaps from Hul/Ul, son of Aram (Genesis 10:23. If that's not enough, Aegir was also "Hymir" (linguistically the same as "Gymir")...the father of the war god, Tyr, and the husband of "Hrod." That latter term evokes the Heorot Danes and Haeredaland, even the Aereda/Redones of Hros roots.
The dragon of Greek myth that helped Cadmus to secure Thebes turned up in the Golden-Fleece myth, and in fact the dragon was the Golden-Fleece bloodline itself, namely, the Ares bloodline to which king Aeetes of Colchis (in Georgia) belonged (Ares, it is well understood, was an Amazon patriarch, wherefore I view him as a Meshech entity, at least in part).
[Remember later on that the Scandinavians/Germanics stem from the elements engaged with Thebes and Aeetes, for I will later identify the two terms as Kabalists among Aryan bedfellows.]
Upon leaving to Colchis to pick up his crown (as mythology goes), Aeetes had left behind in Greece the sons of Hermes to continue his business there, suggesting a close relationship between the Aeetes peoples and Hermes. Indeed, the Golden Fleece was depicted as the pelt of a ram, while Hermes, according to Britannica, was known as "the ram bearer." Moreover, it is Hermes who is shown assisting the rider of the Golden Ram when the rider was in the throws of escaping to Colchis. That rider was named "Phrixus," a term that must surely imply that certain Phrygians were the Golden-Fleece (i.e. dragon) line.
The staff of Hermes was called by the Latin term, a "caduceus", and so just take a look at that symbol and see if it isn't surely a symbol of the Mushussu dragon. The caduceus is a staff entwined by serpents, and the staff depicts the Hermes' penis, and that of his ancestors, the "sacred" bloodline.
[Update June 23 2006 -- Behold evidence that Hermes depicted Armenian peoples, for I just learned of a people-group of Cadusii (Greek "Cadousioi") on the south-west shores off the Caspain sea, close indeed to Verkana (modern Gorgan) on the south-east tip of that same sea. Armenia was on the south-west side of the Caspian, and so there you have it, the origin of Hermes in the Cadusi Armenians. What do we suppose "Cadus" refers to? I say, the Cutha/Cati/Katziri Kabalists! End Update]
This symbol is probably the same as the Dionysus staff called "thyrsos"; a look at this ancient illustration of a Dionysus Maenad (possibly a depiction of a transvestite) reveals how the staff was viewed as a penis. The wings at the top of the caduceus depict the wings of the dragon, but they must also depict Atti(s) since the pine cone (and tree) at the top of the thyrsos was a depiction of Attis (some say that the Christmas tree derives from Attis). This makes sense if Atti(s) was a variation of "Utu," but Atti(s), by that particular title, was a god peculiar to Phrygia.
The wings on the boots of Hermes (Mercury to the Romans) are therefore a symbol of the Utu-dragon bloodline. The caduceus was twined with two ribbons, and it just so happens that the thyrsos was topped also with vines or ivy. Thus, the ivy and the ribbons were a depiction of the two snakes that were the symbols of the Utu cult, the snakes probably depicting the two sacred families (Ishtar and Tammuz) from their respective cities of Eridu and Uruk/Erech.
The caduceus is used as a logo by the American Medical Association, albeit with a single serpent. It is used by other organizations as well. I found that there was also a Celtic caduceus, speaking to the Celt-Greek connection.
It should also be mentioned that Roman Catholicism at times depicts the Communion wafer (i.e. the "body of Christ") with striations emanating in all directions so that the wafer, being round as it is, appears un-coincidentally as the sun (god). That is, they merge Christ with the sun god to this day. This polluting of Jesus with the sun god is a common theme in secret societies, and it's a way for the secret societies to get their dragon-based concepts accepted by society at large. The same public-relation tactic may be in play when the dragon bloodline ties itself to the blood of Jesus and Mary Magdalene.
The Paeonians "worshiped the sun in the form of a small round disk fixed on the top of a pole."
The Paeonians are thus revealed as part of the caduceus/Hermes bloodline. The other peoples in their midst (upon the Strymon river) are suspect as the same, especially the Edones.
The priests of the British dragon lines were the Druids. Now it just so happens that in Greek myth there was a king "Lycurgus/Lycourgos" in Thrace and also one in Arcadia/Sparta, and I do think that this term depicts the same "Loki/Lykos/etc" wolf peoples that became the Ligurians of Italy en route to their forming the Redones of Merovingian-France importance. King Lycurgus of Thrace was "son of Dryas ("Oak-Man")," and "king of the Edonians, who dwell beside the river Strymon."
To be exact, the Edonians lived between the Nestus and Strymon rivers, but so also did the Satrae tribe of Thracians live between those two rivers. Again, the religious leaders among the Satrae were the Bessi tribe of Thracians. If these were the proto-Druids, then the Druids proper (of Britain) may have descended from the Buzi/Busae Medes.
[Update June 2006 -- The picture developing in my mind is that the Bessi were rooted in the Cutha since the Edones were so rooted. As I've found the Cohens to be at the root of the dragon line, and since the Cohens are "Jews," might the Bessi priests have been cohens from the Hebrew, Buz, son of Nahor? Did the Cohen surname form as a result of describing the Bessi-Hebrew priests? If so, wouldn't the Druids stem from the same Cohen/Hebrew root? A startling thought for those Cohens today who claim to be from the Levites. But this is exactly the purpose of this book, to expose the false claims of Kabala/Rosicrucian cults, that they derive in Israelite and/or Christian elements. End Update]
Doesn't an Oak peoples in Thrace by the name of "Dryas" evoke the Druids who, in Britain, were known as "Men of the Oak." This was the sacred tree of Zeus, and Hermes was made a son of Zeus. An ancient version of "Dryas" was "Dryad," and, in Greek myth, "Dryad" was the designation for "Nymphs of the Oaks" (http://www.serrestown.com/uk/istoria/i1.html).
[Update June 2006 -- I don’t think the Druids were named after oak trees, but rather the oak became a symbol of the Druids in that their “Dryas/Dryad” designation sounded like the word for “oak.” As the Dorians are seen by some historians as Macedonians, while there is good reason for identifying the Macedonians as Mac-Edones, couldn't the Dryas peoples have been Dorians since Dorians are said to derive from "Doris"? Moreover, the mythical Polydora was mother to Dryops...so that one could justify expanding that term to "Dori-ops."
I'm suggesting that Redones (Ligurian allies) were Nahorites along with the mythical "Gorlois" (Carolingians) of Wales, both of which were Tuatha-de-Danann peoples that, as the mythical Nor and Gor, sailed to proto-Norway to found the Danes proper, who in turn mixed with Thorri Goths/Jutes to produce the Saxons/Pomeranians that would contribute solidly to the Merovingian bloodline. End Update]
Jutes are often lumped in with Saxons and Angles simply because they shared similar territories, but I view the Jutes as distinct, an earlier peoples in Scandinavia, even the Goths, the fathers of the Germanics. That is, the Goths became the Swedes from whom the Saxon and Anglo Germanics stemmed. The Britannica statement, "the Jutes are the Eotens of the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf, tends to confirm that the Jutes were a Getae branch from Thrace (i.e. "Getae" easily modifies to "Eotens"). Knowing, as Britannica puts it, that Mona (Wales) was "a famous center of the Druid religion," and that the locality of Great Ormos was at Mona, behold the following quote proving both that Edonians were of the Manes (father of Cotys) line and that Cotys depicted Getae Thracians: "Kotys: A Thracian goddess. The cult of Kotys was worshiped by the Edonians..."
Now if the Getae and the Edonians were thereby the same peoples, then the Getae were likewise related to Dryus/Dryad, wherefore it's not surprising that the Druids were called "Gutuatri"! If that's not enough, the Druid goddess was "Eadon."
What I am suggesting is that the Stewarts were descended from the Edonians because the Eaton surname traces itself to Stewart blood, or vice versa. It is now significant that the Jutes appeared in Germany/Denmark along with the appearance of the Saxons and Angles, for an Eaton-family website says: "the family surname of Eaton is shown in the ancient manuscripts and cartularies as tracing their ancestry to Anglo Saxon origin"
The evasiveness of the Eaton family is clear in that they don't as much as mention possible ties to the Jutes/Eotens. The Saxons didn't appear out of nowhere, but were from the Jutes, wherefore the Eatons must have been from the Jute side of the Dane-Jute mix that brought about the Saxons.
Because I equate the Edones with the Budini, I will consider viewing “Bute” as a variation of “Jute.” Threfore, when the Stewarts inter-married with the Bute family (of the Scottish island of Bute), it was probably an Eaton-Stewart mix.
The Pollok family (also connected to the Stewarts) is found in the records only as far back as "Fulbert the Saxon" (11th century), and this provides the same challenge of discovering which, the Dane or Jute side of the Saxons, they stem from. In either case, Druid connections are evident, for Druids had also been the priests of the British Danann (verifying a Dane-Goth alliance). After the Conqueror (1066), the Stewarts and Eatons settled in/near Shropshire on what is now the Welsh border (Eatons first settled Cheshire, adjacent to Shropshire), and the Polloks ultimately settled facing Bute. It’s possible that these settlements were chosen in that they had been ancient, ancestral homelands of the respective surnames, by which I mean to suggest that the settled locations had been Druid/Eadon/Gutuatri territories. I’m also reiterating that the Stewarts, because I have traced them to the Cohen surname, were the Druid priests themselves.
It's my deduction that, when all three families (not to mention the Veres) were in Britain prior to the Conqueror, they were not Anglo-Saxons, but Celts. As would seem obvious, all four families were chased out of Britain (to Normandy) by the Anglo-Saxons (the white dragon of myth) when the latter became powerful enough to rule most of Britain (i.e. when they over-powered the original inhabitants of Britain, the Celts). While the families had been mixing in Britain, it amounted to a mixing of the red and white dragon lines, known to themselves euphemistically as the red and white roses. This mix created the so-called "Tudor Rose" family, a red-white rose mix. The patriarch of the Tudors, Owen Tudor, lived on Mona, according to Britannica! However, the island was "Anglesey" at that time, exposing the point all the more, that white-dragon Angles came to rule/inhabit red-dragon Mona so as to mix colors there.
[Update August 2006 -- I found a Stewart-roots website today that finally came out with it, by saying:“Some historians mistakenly refer to Alan [fitz Flaad, supposedly the earlist-known Stewart] as Norman because he was part of the Norman conquest. However Alan was Breton, not Norman...So although the (future) Stewart line were part of the Norman ruling class, they were a Celtic people.”Later in the aforementioned Britannica article I found that "Venantius Fortunatus (d. 609) mentions the Jute (Euthio) beside the Dane and the Saxon..." (brackets not mine). It's not hard to see how "Euthio" was the origin of "Othinn," the latter a variation of "Odin"...wherefore the supreme Scandinavian bloodline. See how the more-common "Woten" is very nearly "Eoten." Indeed, in German myth, the Goths were from Gaut, who has been generally regarded as Odin himself.
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~rykbrown/principal_families.htm#The%20Principal%20Families%20of%20the%20Balquhidder%20Stewarts End Update]
Now the picture of Odin being married to "Frigg" is a picture of the proto-Jute Edonians mixing with Phrygians. If no one has figured that out yet, shame-shame on all. It's too easy, yet not one website makes the connection so far as I have witnessed. Phrixus, depicted as the Golden Fleece (i.e. Golden Hermes), comes to mind as the root of Frigg.
Lycurgus and Dryas did not get along, and they warred because Lycurgus detested the Dionysus cult (that Dryas was a part of). While Loki was ruler of the Vanir/Danir sect of Scandinavians, Odin was the ruler of the Aesir sect, and because Scandinavian myth reports wars between the Vanir and Aesir, Loki may have been an extension of the Lycurgus Edones, and Odin from Dionysus/Dryas worshipers. As Apollo worshipers were antagonistic to the Dionysus cult, it would argue in favor of a Loki-Apollo connection, which has viability in that Loki and Apollo were both depictions of wolves (i.e. the two gods symbolized the same peoples).
The Loki sect may have been from Sparta (Greece), for there was provided yet another mythical king Lycurgus, fashioned as a patriarch, and therefore a symbol, of Sparta. This agrees with the fact that the Greek Danaans were in-part Spartan.
Sparta (the goddess) was made the daughter of king Eurotas, a term that evokes "Eridanus." Sparta married and had "Eurydice" for a daughter, and she in turn married the father (Acrisius) of Danae (a root of the Danaans), wherefore Spartan blood was the other, non-Rhodian side of the Greek Danaans. And that, in a nutshell, is the Greek root of the Danes.
Eurotas, it should be added, was the son of Lelex, the symbol of the Leleges, a Gogi peoples no doubt because they were related to the Caucones. As the Golden-Fleece dragon giving birth to certain "Sparti" belonged to Ares, it would seem evident that Eurotas was from that Ares dragon since the goddess Sparta was made to descend from Eurotas. In this way, it makes sense that Eurotas depicted the Greek root of the Eridanus Redones (the proto-Rus in France) in that Ares was the symbol of the Hros. Ares was made to father Cycnus/Cygnus...the name of the Ligurian ruler who (according to myth) moved to Eridanus! There were two Cycnus', I’ll admit; the one from Thrace was that of Ares, but "he" no doubt migrated to become (the peoples of) king Cycnus of Liguria. Therefore, the Gogi had been in Thrace, and must have been the Ares dragon there, wherefore the Gogi and the Hros appear indistinguishable.
As Eurotas figures prominently in the red/Dane dragon line, especially as he may have been named after Hirota (Norway) to depict the very Greek line leading to that city, a look at his father is necessary. He was Myles, whose brother (Polycaon) was married to Messene (depicting Messenia), who was in turn made the daughter of Triopas. Wouldn't you know it, Triopas was the son of Helios and Rhoda, the same parents that I independently traced the Redones to. In other words, Eurotas stems from the proto-Russians of Rhodes (as even “Eurotas” would hint) depicted by code-word Polycaon, while that latter term seems to undress to “Po-river wolf peoples.”